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Full text of "Urban traffic control and bus priority system"

662 'ft No. FHWA-RD- 73-10 

.A3 i| 
no . I 

«»-*' AN TRAFFIC CONTROL 
^Tffl) BUS PRIORITY SYSTEM 



r "DffiaRTMENT OF 



< 



£ 1974 



hlillii' 



Vol. II. Operator's Manual 




***TES O* 



September 1972 
Final Report 



This document is available through 
the National Technical Information 
Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151. 



Prepared for 

FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION 

Offices of Research & Development 
Washington, D.C. 20590 



NOTICE 

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship 
of the Department of Transportation in the interest 
of information exchange. The United States 
Government assumes no liability for its contents or 
use thereof. 

The contents of this report reflect the views of the 
contracting organization, which is responsible for 
the facts and the accuracy of the data presented 
herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the 
official views or policy of the Department of 
Transportation. This report does not constitute a 
standard, specification, or regulation. 



TECHNICAL REPORT STANDARD TITLE PAGE 



1. Report No. 

FHWA-RD-73-10 . 


2. Government Accession No. 


3. Recipient's Catalog No. 


4. TiitJo and Subtitle 

URBAN TRAFFIC CONTROL AND BUS PRIORITY 
SYSTEM. Vol. II. Operator's Manual, 


5. Report Date 

September 1972 


6. Performing Organization Code 


7. Author(s) 


8. Performing Organization Report No. 

GF-15-1003 


9. Performing Organization Name and Address 

Sperry Systems Management Division 
Sperry Rand Corporation 
Great Neck, N.Y. 11020 


10. Work Unit No. 

FCP 32B1 022 


11. Contract or Grant No. 

FH-11-7605 


13. Type of Report and Period Covered 

Final Report 


12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 

U.S. Department of Transportation 
Federal Highway Administration , 
Washington, D.C. 20591 


14. Sponsoring Agency Code 


15. Supplementary Notes 

The FHWA contract manager for this study is Juri Raus (HRS-33) . 


16. Abstroct 

An Urban Traffic Control and Bus Priority System has been implemented by the 
Sperry Systems Management Division in the District of Columbia under Federal 
Highway Administration contract No. FH-11-7605, Advanced Control Technology 
in Urban Traffic Control Systems - Installation. The system includes on-street 
surveillance and control elements and a central office data processing facility. 
This manual describes the system elements and the operator's functions for this 
system. 

This volume is one of a series of three comprising the 
complete final report on this R&D effort. The others are: 

Report FHWA-RD-73-9. Vol. I. Design and Installation. 
Report FHWA-RD-73-11. Vol. III. Maintenance Manual. 


17. Key Words 

Networks 

Real Time Systems 
Traffic Control Systems 
Traffic Operations 


18. Distribution Statement 

No restriction. Copies of report are 
available from: 

National Technical Information Services 

Springfield, Virginia 22151 


19. Security Clossif. (of this report) 

Unclassified 


20. Security Clossif. (of this page) 

Unclassified 


21. No. of Pages 
144 


22. Price 



Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-69) 



>"?.' 



FOREWORD 

An Urban Traffic Control and Bus Priority System has been implemented by the 
Sperry Systems Management Division in the District of Columbia under Federal Highway 
Administration contract No. FH-1 1-7605, Advanced Control Technology in Urban Traffic 
Control Systems - Installation. The system includes on- street surveillance and control 
elements and a central office data processing facility. This manual describes the system 
elements and the operator's functions for this system. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Paragraph 
SECTION 1. 

1.1 
SECTION 2. 
2.1 
2.2 
2.2.1 

2.2.2 

2.2.3 
2.2.4 
2.2.5 

2.2.6 

2.3 

2.4 

2.4. 1 

2.4.2 

2.4.3 

2.4.4 

2.5 

2.6 

2.6.1 

2.6.2 



INTRODUCTION 



DEPARTMENT OF 
TRANSPORTATION 



i 



•■ 



Page 
LiittlAi™ 

. . . l-l 



Summary 1-1 

FUNCTIONAL OPERATION 2-1 

Functional Operation Summary 2-1 

Traffic Signal Control 2-2 

Cycle Synchronization Before Transformation 

to Computer Control 2-3 

Cycle Synchronization Checks While Under 

Computer Control 2-3 

Synchronization of Controller With Computer 2-4 

Transition Cycles 2-4 

Transformation From Computer Control to 

Stc ndby 2-5 

Semi-Actuated Control 2-6 

Area Control 2-6 

Intersection Control 2-7 

Critical Intersection Control (CIC) 2-7 

Bus Priority System (BPS) Control 2-8 

Operator Split Change 2-9 

Operator Offset Change 2-9 

Operator/Computer/Traffic System Interface 2-10 

Mode Control 2-11 

Standby Mode 2-11 

Time of Day (TOD) Mode 2-12 



Paragraph 

2.6.3 

2.6.4 

2.7 

2.7.1 

2.7.2 

2.7.2.1 

2.7.2.2 

2.7.3 

2.7.3.1 

2.7.3.2 

2.7.4 



SECTION 



3. 

3.1 
3.1.1 
3.1.1.1 



3.1.1.2 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 

Page 

Traffic Responsive Mode 2-13 

Manual Pattern Mode 2-13 

Malfunction Detection 2-14 

Controller Failure Detection 2-14 

Detector and Detector Communication Failure 

Detection 2-15 

Vehicle Detector Failure Detection 2-15 

Bus Detector Failure Detection 2-16 

CPU Malfunction Detection 2-16 

Dual Mode 2-17 

Sim le CPU Mode 2-17 

CPU Malfunction Detection Via Control Panel 2-18 

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION 3-1 

Central Equipment 3-5 

Traffic Control Console and Map Display 3-5 

Traffic Control Panel 3-5 

(a) System Control 3-5 

(b) Map Control 3-10 

(c) Malfunction Indicators 3-13 

(d) Status Display 3-15 

(e) Simultaneous Control Panel Entries 3-18 

(f) Valid Control Panel Entries 3-18 

Map Display 3-18 

(a) Display Arrows 3-18 

(b) Display Legend and Operation 3-20 

(c) A-Phase Green Operation 3-20 



li 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 

Paragraph Page 

(d) Simultaneous Operation of Intersection 

and Link Arrows 3-20 

(e) Early Warning Link Arrows 3-20 

(f) Map Display Lamp Tests 3-20 

3.1.1.3 CRT Display Units 3-23 

(a) Equipment Description 3-24 

(b) CRT Display Pages 3-24 

3.1.2 UTCS and BPS Computers 3-25 

3.1.2.1 Magnetic Tape Units 3-25 

3.1.2.2 Rapid Access Disc 3-25 

3.1.2.3 Teletypewriters 3-25 

3. 1. 2. 4 Line Printer 3-27 

3. 1. 2. 5 Card Reader 3-27 

3.1.2.6 Card Punch 3-27 

3. 1. 3 Computer Interface Unit 3-27 

3. 1. 4 Communications 3-28 

3. 1. 5 Map Electronics Unit 3-28 

3.1.6 Radio Link 3-28 

3. 2 Field Equipment 3-30 

3. 2. 1 Controllers 3-30 

3. 2. 2 Detector Loops and Electronics 3-30 

3. 2. 2. 1 Vehicle Detectors 3-30 

3.2.2.2 Bus Detectors 3-31 

3. 2. 3 Field Cabinets 3-31 

3. 2. 4 On-Board Bus Equipment 3-32 



in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 

Paragraph Page 

SECTION 4. OPERATING PROCEDURES 4-1 

4. 1 System Start-Up 4-1 

4. 1. 1 Power On Procedure 4-1 

4. 1. 2 CPU Start-Up 4-3 

4. 1.2. 1 CPU #1 Start-Up From RAD 4-3 

4. 1.2.2 CPU #1 Start-Up From System Tape 4-5 

4. 1. 2. 3 CPU #2 Start-Up 4-6 

4. 1.3 Traffic System On- Line Procedure 4-7 

4. 1. 3. 1 Survey of CIC Operation 4-8 

4. 1. 3. 2 Survey of BPS Operation . ' 4-9 

4.2 Traffic Surveillance Procedures 4-10 

4.3 Mode Change Procedures 4-12 

4.3. 1 I. "ode Change Requests . 4-12 

(a) Change to TOD Mode 4-12 

(b) Change to Manual Pattern Mode 4-12 

(c) Change to Standby Mode 4-13 

4.4 Malfunction Detection and Management 4-13 

4.4.1 Malfunction Status at Shutdown 4-14 

4.4.2 Malfunction Surveillance Procedures 4-14 

4. 4. 3 Failure Repair Procedure 4-15 

4. 5 Data Accumulation and Reporting 4-15 

4.5.1 15-Minute Report 4-15 

4. 5. 2 End of Day Reports 4- 16 

4.5.3 15-Minute Tape 4 " 16 

4.5.4 Raw History Tape 4 " 16 

iv 



Paragraph 

4.6 

SECTION 5. 
5.1 
5.1.1 
5.1.2 
5.1.3 
5.1.4 
5.2 
5.2. 1 
5.2.2 
5.2.3 
5.3 

APPENDIX A 

A. 1 
A. 1.1 
A. 2 
A. 2.1 
A. 3 

APPENDIX B 

APPENDLX C 

C.l 
C.l. 1 
C. 1.2 
C.l. 3 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 

Page 

System Shutdown 4-17 

REFERENCE TABLES AND MANUALS 5-1 

Cross Reference Directory 5-1 

Vehicle Detector Electronics Units File Card 5-5 

Bus Detector File Card 5-5 

Field Cabinets (CB) File Card 5-5 

Electronics Cabinets (EB) File Card 5-6 

Section Reference Tables 5-6 

Controllers By Section Table 5-6 

Links By Section Table 5-6 

Bus Zones By Section Table 5-7 

Reference Manuals 5-7 

GLOSSARY A-l 

Urban Traffic Control System (UTCS) Terms A-l 

UTCS MOE Parameters A-3 

Bus Priority System (BPS) Terms A-5 

Bus Priority System MOE Parameters A-8 

General Terms A-9 

VALID CONTROL PANEL REQUESTS B-l 

STATUS REPORTS AND DISPLAYS ■ • C-l 

CRT Displays C-l 

Failure Status Page C-l 

System Status Page C-l 

Controller Status Page C-4 



Paragraph 

C.1.4 
C.1.5 
C.1.6 
C.1.7 
C.2 
C.2.1 
C.2. 2 
C.2. 3 
C.2. 4 
C.2. 5 
C.2. 6 
C.2. 7 
C.2. 8 
C.2. 9 
C.3 
C.3.1 
C.3. 2 
C.3. 3 
APPENDIX D 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) 

Page 

Detector Status Page C-4 

Intersection Status Page C-4 

BPS System Status Page • C-8 

BPS Intersection Page C-10 

15-Minute Report C-10 

Changes Since Last Report C-12 

UTCS/BPS Failure Status C-14 

UTCS Controller Status C-16 

UTCS Detector Status C-16 

UTCS System Status C-16 

UTCS System Performance Report • • C-16 

BPS System Status C-16 

BPS 15-Minute Section Summary C-23 

BPS 15-Minute Zone Summary C-23 

End of Day Report C-23 

UTCS End of Day Report C-23 

BPS End of Day Section Summary C-33 

BPS End of Day Zone Summary C-33 

COMMON UTCS/BPS ERROR MESSAGES D-l 



VI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure Page 

3-1 UTCS/BPS Integrated Block Diagram 3-2 

3-2 Floor Plan of UTCS/BPS Washington, D. C. Control Center 3-4 

3-3 Traffic Control Console and Map Display 3-6 

3-4 Traffic Control Panel 3-7 

3-5 System Control Section 3-8 

3-6 Map Control Section 3-11 

3-7 M:J function Indicator Section 3-14 

3-8 Si l-.s Display Section 3-16 

3-9 UTCS EPS Map Display 3-19 

3-10 UTCS Computer and Peripheral Equipments 3-26 

4-1 CPU Control Panel (Switch Configuration Before CPU #1/ 

CPU #2 Start-Up) 4-4 

5-1 Sample Vehicle Detector File Card 5-2 

5-2 Sample Bus Detectors File Card 5-2 

5-3 Sample Field Cabinets (CB) File Card (Both Sides) 5-3 

5-4 Sample Electronics Cabinets (EB) File Card 5-4 

C-l CRT Failure Status Page C-2 

C-2 CRT System Status Page C-3 

C-3 CRT Controller Status Page C-5 



Vll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) 

Figure Page 

C-4 CRT Detector Status Page C-6 

C-5 CRT Intersection Status Page C-7 

C-6 CRT BPS System Status Page C-9 

C-7 CRT BPS Intersection Status Page C-ll 

C-8 UTCS/BPS 15-Minute Status Changes Since Last Report C-13 

C-9 UTCS/BPS 15-Minute Failure, and UTCS Controller, 

Detector, and System Status Reports C-15 

C-10 UTCS System Performance Report C-17 

C-ll BPS System Status and BPS 15-Minute Section Summary C-22 

C-12 BPS 15-Minute Zone Summary C-24 

C-13 UTCS End of Day Report C-26 

C-14 BPS End of Day Section Summary C-34 

C-15 BPS End of Day Zone Summary C-35 



Vlll 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table Page 

3-1 Map Display Legend Operation 3-21 

3-2 Summary of Telephone Lines/Communications/CIU 

Interface 3-29 

4-1 UTCS/BPS Power Switch Summary 4-2 

5-1 Cross Reference Directory File Configuration 5-1 

A-l Summary of UTCS MOE Parameters A-6 

B-l System Control Requests B-2 

B-2 Map Display Requests B-6 

B-3 Status Display Requests B-8 



ix/x 



SECTION 1 
INTRODUCTION 

This manual describes the equipment, functional operation, and the procedures 
for operating the integrated Urban Traffic Control System (UTCS)/Bus Priority System 
(BPS). The UTCS and BPS together comprise an integrated computer-controlled traffic 
system. The UTCS can operate independently of the BPS, however, the converse is not 
true. The UTCS Computer must be on-line before the BPS Computer can be started up. 
Furthermore, the BPS cannot grant bus extensions until the UTCS has been brought on-line 
and has been activated, at least in part, for Critical Intersection Control (CIC) operation. 

1. 1 Summary 

Section 2, Functional Operation, summarizes and describes in some detail the 
various aspects of the UTCS/BPS functional operation. Section 3, Equipment Description, 
includes an overall system block diagram together with a description of individual compo- 
nents. Section 4, Operating Procedures, provides step-by-step procedures including 
system start up and shutdown, traffic surveillance, mode operation, malfunction detection 
and management, and data accumulation and reporting. Section 5, Reference Tables and 
Manuals, describes the contents and use of the Cross Reference Directory and other refer- 
ence tables. It also provides a list of reference manuals. 

Appendix A, Glossary, includes a glossary of UTCS, BPS, and general terms, as 
well as the definitions of the UTCS/BPS Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) parameters. 
Appendix B, Valid Control Panel Requests, presents a tabulation of all the valid Control 
Panel input requests for operating the traffic system. Appendix C, Status Reports and 
Displays, presents sample CRT pages, 15-Minute Reports, and End of Day Reports, to- 
gether with discussions and explanations. Appendix D, Common UTCS/BPS Computer 
Error Messages, lists and explains the common error messages encountered in system 
operation which are printed out on the UTCS teletypewriter (TTY). 



1-1/1-2 



SECTION 2 
FUNCTIONAL OPERATION 

2-1. Functional Operation Summary 

The UTCS/BPS System interfaces with the field controllers so that the original 
local-dial system remains intact and provides a back-up (Standby mode) for the computer- 
controlled system. In addition, the existing three -dial timing patterns are duplicated 
within the computer-controlled system for automatic selection in time of day operation as 
well as for checkout and data gathering. 

Control of traffic signal timing sequences is provided by developing a library of 
area "control patterns", in addition to the existing dial patterns, for each of several sectio 
(group of intersections). The resulting cycle, split, and offset for each traffic signal are 
synchronized in the computer so that the "advance" pulses transmitted to the controller 
cam mechanism provide the desired timing sequences. The selection of the control patten 
to be used may be based on time of day, automatic response to traffic conditions, or opera 
tor choice. 

Critical intersections (those which saturate frequently) may have their split ad- 
justed to be directly proportional to the green demand times computed for their associate< 
links. This split control over-rides the area control pattern in effect for that intersectioi 
BPS intersections (those which are instrumented for bus priority operation) can also affe< 
an over-ride of the area control pattern by extending the green time on either the A or B 
phase. 

Semi-actuated intersections continue to operate in their local control mode, wit 
the exception that the computer synchronizes their response to the side-street traffic wit 
respect to the computer-timed cycle length, thus maintaining the proper offset relations 
with other controllers within the section. 

The integrated UTCS/BPS system provides the operator with a large measure ( 
flexibility and ease in controlling various system functions. Built-in error detection 
automatically indicates an "error" or "wait" condition when an invalid operator selectic 
is made. A broad selection of comprehensive reports and displays for analyzing systei 
performance, traffic surveillance, system status, and failure status is available. Har 



2-1 



copies of various reports and tapes are provided at 15-minute intervals and at the end of 
day for analyzing system performance as well as for the off-line generation of control 
patterns. 

The system provides for the continuous and automatic testing of key system com- 
ponents including: controllers, vehicle detectors and communications, and bus detector 
and communications. In addition, the system automatically reacts to a detected failure to 
minimize the impact on system operation and performance. For example, if a vehicle 
detector fails, the computation of the MOE's for the associated link is automatically in- 
hibited. A malfunction indication (audible and visible) on the traffic system Control Panel 
alerts the operator to the failure so that he may react immediately to acknowledge and to 
isolate the fault, thereby affecting a prompt correction. 

2. 2 Traffic Signal Control 



The computer in the UTCS system replaces the dial drum, in that it generates the 
interval advance pulses which step the signal control camshaft. For the semi-actuated 
controllers, the computer generates a Yield pulse which the controller uses to initiate 
its internally timed B -phase vehicle or pedestrian sequences as a function of the existing 
demand at the controller. Both types of controllers receive a continuous Hold signal 
when the controller is on-line, that is, designated to receive the computer Advance or 
Yield signals. At the initiation of the Hold signal, the appropriate relays at the local 
controller are energized to switch from standby to computer control. 

In addition to the two outputs from the computer to the controller described above, 
a signal representing A-Phase Green is transmitted from the controller to the computer. 
This signal is used by the computer to determine if the controller is correctly following 
the computer-generated Advance (or Yield) and Hold commands. 

The computer replaces the District's master controller cycle timing references 
for all those controllers under computer control. The specific functions which are nor- 
mally performed by the master controllers in conjunction with the local controllers, and 
which are taken over and performed under computer control, are summarized below: 

(a) Selection of signal timing control parameters (cycle, split, and offset) for 
each section of controllers. 

(b) Timing of controller cycle lengths for all possible operational cycles which 
may be selected by the computer program. 



2-2 



(c) Maintenance of desired offset relationship at each local controller with re- 
spect to the cycle timer currently designated to that controller. 

The computer program also accommodates all those time-of-day lane or street 
direction changes which occur within the network by appropriately changing the selection 
of control parameters that apply to the streets affected. 

2.2.1 Cycle Synchronization Before Transformation to Computer Control 

When the traffic system is placed on-line, computer-timed cycle lengths are 
synchronized with the corresponding cycle timing reference from the District's master 
clock, before the controllers are transferred to computer control. During start-up, the 
cycle time count for a given cycle length is not initiated until the master synchronization 
pulse is received from the corresponding District master controller operating at this cycle 
length. The single exception to this procedure will be the case where no synchronization 
pulse is received from a master controller for 125 seconds following start up. (Normally 
all pulses will have been received by this time since the maximum cycle length in the 
District's system is 120 seconds.) At the end of this 125-second period, all cycle time 
counts that have not been initiated previously will be started, and the computer will pro- 
ceed to place the cc .. '. ers on-line. 

2.2.2 Cycle Syr ;-:::ization Checks While Under Computer Control 

While unci :' computer control, cycle synchronization with the master clock pulses 
is continuously chc cl;?d. If the synchronization degrades by more than five seconds in 
either direction, a flag is set for all controllers using that cycle length. The flag is in- 
terpreted by the computer which, in turn, alerts the operator by changing the Master Sync 
legend on the CRT Intersection Status page from a "yes" to a "no", for any controller using 
that cycle length. The flag is automatically reset when synchronization is again within 
tolerance. 

It should be noted than an out-of-synchronization condition will not drop controllers 
from computer control. Internal tests are continuously made (refer to paragraphs 2.7.3 and 2. 7. 4) 
which assure computer timing accuracy and stability. Should these tests fail, the system 
would automatically be placed in Standby. Thus, it is likely that any drifts in the synchro- 
nization from the District's master clock, beginning with the initial start-up, will not be due to 
the computer timing reference. 



2-3 



2. 2. 3 Synchronization of Controller With Computer 

After a controller is placed under computer control, it is continuously checked, 
and corrections attempted, if necessary, to assure that the controller cam intervals are 
in step with the computer designated intervals. This is determined in terms of the A-Phase 
Green return signal which signifies the start of the first controller interval. If the A-Phase 
Green return signal is not present within three seconds of the computer directed A-Phase 
Green, an additional interval advance pulse is transmitted. If the A-Phase Green return sig- 
nal is not present by 1 1/2 seconds following the transmission of this additional advance pulse, 
the controller will be placed in standby, a "Controller Malfunction Flag" will be set, and 
the CRT failure table will be updated. If the start of the A-Phase Green return occurs one 
interval early, a flag will be set to inhibit the transmission of the next sequential interval 
advance pulse. 

If it is inferred from the A-Phase Green return that a controller is out- of- step 
with respect to the computer-generated A-Phase Green by two or more intervals at any 
time during a controller cycle, the following sequence will be initiated by the computer: 

(a) Place the controller in Standby 

(b) Set "Controller Malfunction Flag" 

(c) Update the CRT failure table. 

2.2.4 Transition Cycles 

Transition cycles are used for smoothly transforming from one area control 
pattern to another, or when a controller is being transferred from standby to computer 
control. The number of required transition cycles depends on the difference between the 
working offset and the new, or desired, offset and is determined as follows: 

(a) If the magnitude of the offset difference is less than two seconds, no transi- 
tional cycle is required. 

(b) If the magnitude of the offset difference is greater than two seconds, either 
one or two transitional cycles are required. The computer will select the quickest way 
to impose the desired offset, within the bounds that a transitional cycle length must be 
greater than the minimum cycle length for the section and must be less than twice the 
minimum cycle length. 



2-4 



The splits during the transitional cycles are apportioned as follows: 

(a) If the intersection has been operating as a critical intersection, the transi- 
tional split is set equal to that value which was in effect for the cycle immediately pre- 
ceding the transition. 

(b) If the intersection has not been operating as a critical intersection, the tran- 
sitional split is set equal to that value which is to be used after the transitional cycles have 
been completed. 

Transitional cycles will permit a smooth transition of a controller from Standby 
(local dial control) to computer control even for an out-of-tolerance cycle synchronization 
condition. This situation may arise if a controller has been in standby for some time after 
the traffic system was placed on-line (all cycle lengths synchronized). The difference in 
synchronization will be interpreted as a difference in offset and the transitional cycles will 
be adjusted accordingly, in bringing the controller in synchronism with the computer cycles. 

2.2.5 Transformation From Computer Control to Standby 

The computer attempts to make a smooth transformation when dropping a con- 
troller from computer control to Standby. When a Standby request is made, the computer 
waits for the next A-Phase Green return signal from the controller and counts 7.5 seconds 
before releasing it. Release consists of removing the "Hold" signal to the controller. This 
sequence assures that the Hold has been dropped while the local controller cam is within its 
first interval. 

The 7.5 second delay assures that the initial A-Phase Green Phase will be at 
least that long, whether the local dial cycle length is synchronized with the current com- 
puter cycle length or not. If the cycle length is synchronized at the time of release, 
the controller will fall into the local phase timing sequence on the next cycle beginning with 
the receipt of the initial A-Phase Green return. If the cycle length is not initially syn- 
chronized, the proper phase timing sequence is automatically picked up on the following 
cycle, when the green- release key steps the cam out of the first green interval (interval #1). 

For semi-actuated controllers, the release to Standby is made at the time that the 
next Yield pulse is transmitted by the computer. This provides a smooth transformation 
and, at the same time, assures that the minimum A-Phase Green time is maintained. 



2-5 



2. 2. 6 S emi-Actuated Control 

Semi-actuated control is used at intersections within the UTCS network with light 
cross street traffic. The primary function performed by the computer is to synchronize 
these controllers with the cycle lengths and offsets which are being imposed on the sections 
to which they are assigned. All of the vehicle and pedestrian sensing, timing, and control 
functions, required to generate the A-phase clearance intervals and the B-phase passage 
and clearance intervals, remain under the control of the local controller. 

The UTCS Computer transmits a Yield pulse to the semi-actuated controller on a 
once-per-cycle basis. The controller uses this pulse to initiate one of the following B-phase 
sequences as a function of the existing demand at the intersection: 

(a) Pedestrian sequence 

(b) Vehicle sequence 

(c) Combination of the above two sequences 

(d) No B-phase sequence (If no B-phase calls are present) 

The computer generates a Yield pulse which meets the following requirements: 

(a) Maintains the same cycle length at the semi-actuated controllers as that 
which is in effect at the adjacent controllers in the sec H on. 

(b) Transmits the Yield pulse at such a time that the subsequent A-phase clear- 
ance intervals and the longest permissible B-phase interval cause the next sequential start 
of A- Phase Green to occur at the desired main street offset time. (A Yield pulse cannot 
be transmitted until the preset minimum A-Phase Green time, after the start of A-Phase 
Green, has elapsed.) 

The semi-actuated controllers do not require the transitional cycles described 
for the non-semi-actuated or pre-timed controllers in paragraph 2.2.4. Tran- 
sition, when changing from Standby to computer control and during pattern changes, con- 
sists simply of extending or shortening the A-Phase Green to impose the new offset on the 
subsequent cycle. 

2. 3 Area Control 

The function of area control is to establish a desired set of control parameters: 
(cycle, split, and offset) for all the controllers in a section. A section consists of a group 
of local controllers which will always be operating in the same control mode, and which 
will always switch from one selection of control parameters (pattern) to another, at the 



2-6 



same time. Control parameters are selected for an entire section of controllers in order 
to maintain a workable interface between intersections within a section, and to maintain 
realistic vehicle progression speeds along the primary arteries within the section by an 
appropriate selection of controller offset data. 

2.4 Intersection Control 

The function of intersection control is to establish the desired set of control 
parameters (cycle, split and offset) for one or more specific controllers (or intersections) 
within a section. Intersection control functions in conjunction with and supplements the 
area control operation. Supplementary control can be affected at an intersection by: 

(a) operating as CIC 

(b) operating as BPS 

(c) operator selection of an offset or split change 

2. 4. 1 Critical Intersection Control (CIC) 

Intersections which saturate frequently are instrumented for queue determination 
on the links associated with the two major phases. Splits for these intersections are then 
changed on a once-per-cycle basis as a function of the computed values of queues and vol- 
umes on these links. This "critical intersection control" is superimposed on the area con- 
trol which is in effect. Thus, it those intersections instrumented and designated as critical 
intersections, the split value selected by the area control algorithm will be overridden as 
a function of the existing local demand. 

The operator may initiate or terminate critical intersection control via the Control 
Panel at any time. It should be noted that an intersection could be designated and operating 
as a CIC, without affecting a change in split on any given cycle. The area control imposed 
split is modified only if the green demand time which is based on the normally expected 
queue from history and the current volume on any link exceeds a threshold value. The 
split is then apportioned in accordance with the computed green demand time for all multi- 
detector links at the intersection. Conversely, the split will revert to the area control 
value if the green demands on all links fall below a lower threshold value. 

An intersection is automatically inhibited from CIC control, although it has been 
designated by the operator, for the following reasons: 

(a) A detector (or associated communications) on any of the associated multi- 
detector links fails. It should be noted that the intersection will not be placed in CIC 



2-7 



operation after the detector is repaired and on-line until at least one cycle of queue and 
volume data is obtained. 

(b) The controller is in Standby. 

(c) The local controller timing and phasing configuration makes CIC operation 
unfeasible. The intersections affected are inhibited on a TOD basis. See paragraph 

4. 1.3. 1 for a list of the intersections involved. 

(d) The controller is in transition. (CIC operation will actually be inhibited for 
one additional cycle following the last transition cycle.) 

(e) An operator offset change is in effect. 

(f) A bus priority extension has been granted which carries over to the next 
cycle. This situation may come about if a bus priority extension is granted on the B -phase. 

2.4.2 Bus Priority System (BPS) Control 

Bus extensions are granted at intersections instrumented for BPS operation on a 
cycle-to-cycle basis. The extensions affect the split, and can affect the offset and cycle 
length depending on which phase the extension is granted. An extension of the A-phase is 
followed by an equivak at shortening of the B-phase which does not affect the A-phase off- 
set or the cycle length. However, an extension of the B-phase lengthens the working cycle, 
delays the A-phase offset by the length of the extension, and is followed by a cycle which 
is shortened by the amount of the extension. 

Bus extensions are granted to eligible buses only (that is, a Thru bus which ar- 
rives at the upstream detector one second before the start of amber, or a Stop bus which 
arrives at the upstream detector one second plus its average loading time before the start 
of amber where the loading time is a function of Time of Day and bus zone. During normal 
operation, an extension is granted based on a comparison of the gain in passenger- minutes 
on one phase with that on the opposing phase. All eligible buses in the bus zones, as well 
as vehicles, are taken into account. An extension is granted to a phase only if it has a 
possible net gain which exceeds a pre-established threshold. Thus, an intersection could 
be designated for BPS operation and operating as such, without granting an extension on any 
given cycle. In the Preempt mode, the passenger gain threshold criterion is bypassed. 
Extensions are then granted whenever eligible buses enter a bus zone. Extensions on 
opposing phases are granted in turn. 



2-8 



An intersection is automatically inhibited for BPS control, although it has been 
designated by the operator, for the following reasons: 

(a) The intersection is inhibited for CIC operation. 

(b) The intersection is operating as a CIC and is in the process of granting a 
split change. Under these conditions the granting of a bus extension might be in conflict 
with the split changes necessitated by the green demand. 

(c) A bus detector (or associated communications) on any of the bus zones at the 
intersection fails. 

The granting of bus extensions on successive cycles is permissible on the A-phase, 
provided the sequence is not interrupted by the granting of an extension on the B-phase. Bus 
extensions are inhibited on the cycle following a B-phase extension. This is required in or- 
der to preserve the cycle length and the A-phase offset relationships on subsequent cycles. 

2. 4. 3 Operator Split Change 

An operator split change can be affected via the Control Panel by a selection of the 
desired A -Phase Green, in seconds, for the intersection for which the change is desired. 
This change is implemented at the beginning of the next cycle. A split change is not per- 
mitted (indicated by the "error" light) if: 

(a) The controller is not under com iter control. 

(b) The intersection has already oeen selected and is operating as a CIC. 



if: 



In addition, the computer will not accept (indicated by the "wait" light) a split change 

(a) The associated controller is in transition. 

(b) A new pattern is being read in from the RAD. 

The computer automatically rejects (indicated by the "error" light) a split change, 
if either the minimum permissible A-Phase or B -Phase Greens would be violated as a re- 
sult of the desired change. The CRT Intersection Status page can be used to determine the 
limits imposed on the variable A-phase and B-phase intervals. The page lists the mini- 
mum A-Phase Green for the intersection as well as the values of all the controller inter- 
vals. 

2.4.4 Operator Offset Change 

An operator offset change can be affected via the Control Panel. This is imple- 
mented by a selection of the desired offset, in seconds, for the intersection for which the 
change is desired. The offset change is not permitted, indicated by the "error" light, if 



2-9 



the controller is not under computer control. In addition, the computer will not accept 
(indicated by the "wait" light) an offset change if the associated controller is in transition 
or a new pattern is being read in from the RAD. The offset change is automatically re- 
jected (indicated by the "error" light) if the operator offset value exceeds the operating 
cycle length. 

The offset change is implemented incrementally on a cycle-to-cycle basis. The 
computer will either increase the offset by six seconds or decrease it by three seconds, 
each cycle, until the desired offset is obtained. The quickest path is automatically chosen 
by the computer. 

The CRT Intersection Status page (Appendix C, Figure C-5) can be used to advan- 
tage in observing the cyclical changes in the offset. The actual working offset and the 
entry offset are listed for the intersection. When an operator offset change is entered, the 
entry offset will continue to indicate the value for the area pattern. The actual offset will, 
however, increase or decrease each cycle until the actual offset is equal to the new offset 
value desired by the operator. 

2. 5 Operator/Computer/Traffic System Interface 

The Traffic System Control Panel permits the operator to direct the operation of 
the system, and to select the type of information to be displayed. It provides the means 
of communicating with the computer for implementing all system control and display func- 
tions. The various control functions are as follows: 

(a) System start-up and shutdown 

(b) System or section mode changes 

(c) CIC operation 

(d) BPS operation 

(e) Localized intersection control 

(f) Traffic Surveillance 

(g) Selection of CRT display pages 
(h) Selection of Map display mode 
(i) Failure reporting and updating 



2-10 



(j) Permit or suppress 15-minute printouts 

(k) Automatic error indication 

(1) Failure alarms and indicators 

Error indications are automatically provided on the Control Panel if an input re- 
quest is not valid. For example, a selection of an intersection for CIC operation is not 
valid if its controller is in Standby, and an error indication would be accordingly provided. 
Failure alarms (audible and visible) are also indicated automatically on the Control Panel. 
The alarm indications are removed when operator actions are taken via the Control Panel. 
The system Manual Release function is a direct link between the operator and the system 
controllers. All controllers are placed on local control (Standby) by releasing their Hold 
signals when the MANUAL RELEASE switch is depressed. The release to Standby opera- 
tion in this case is not under computer control (as described in paragraph 2.2.5). 

A detailed description of the Control Panel switching, together with its operation 
with the CRT and Map Displays is given in paragraph 3. 1. 1. 

2.6 Mode Control 



The UTCS/BPS traffic system operates in four modes of area control: 

1. Standby 

2. Time of Day (TOD) 

3. Traffic Responsive 

4. Manual Pattern 

2.6.1 Standby Mode 

In the Standby Mode, the controllers are released from computer to local dial con- 
trol. The UTCS Computer is on-line during standby operation, however, and limited sys- 
tem functions are available. For example, the volume, speed, and occupancy parameters 
are displayed and recorded for all links. This data can be utilized for generating patterns. 
Furthermore, the Traffic System Control Panel can operate in conjunction with the UTCS 
Computer for selecting CRT and map displays, for updating failure status tables, and for 
implementing subsequent mode changes. Vehicle detector and communications failure de- 
tection continue to function during Standby operation. All CIC and BPS operation is, how- 
ever, inhibited in the Standby Mode. 



2-11 



The Standby Mode is selectable by the operator on a system (all sections) or on 
an individual section basis. The request is immediately put into effect by the computer 
which affects a smooth transformation (paragraph 2.2.5) to local control. 

If the operating mode of a section or sections was Standby at the last system 
shutdown, the operating mode of the section or sections will be Standby when the traffic 
system is again placed on line. Operation will continue as such until a mode change re- 
quest is made. 

2.6.2 Time of Day (TOD) Mode 

In the TOD mode, control patterns are automatically selected on a time-of-day 
and day-of-week basis. The change of control parameters is accommodated with a time 
resolution of 15 minutes for each section in the system. This resolution accommodates 
all switching times in the present District system, including the switching times required 
for the changing of parameters due to lane or street directional flow changes. 

The initial library of TOD patterns constitutes a duplication of the District's 3- 
dial system, that is, Basic, AM Peak and PM Peak, and serves as a back-up mode for 
the existing time-of-day control. The library will be expanded to include anticipated ad- 
ditional switching times and patterns. This will be accomplished when volume and occu- 
pancy history data become available. Patterns for intermediate hours may provide 
smoother transitions from the basic pattern to a peak pattern and vice versa. 

The TOD mode is selectable by the operator on a system (all sections) or on an 
individual section basis. The request is immediately put into effect by the computer, 
which affects a smooth transformation using transition cycles (paragraph 2.2.4). 

If the operating mode of a section or sections at the last system shutdown was 
TOD, Traffic Responsive, or Manual Pattern, the traffic system will be brought on-line 
in the TOD mode. This is done for the following reasons: 

(a) To allow the system to gather data required to implement the Traffic Re- 
sponsive mode. 

(b) To prevent a manually chosen pattern, which is not appropriate for this 
Time of Day, from being imposed. 

Sections which were in TOD or Manual Pattern will continue to operate in TOD until a 
mode change is requested by the operator. Sections which were in Traffic Responsive at 



2-12 



the last shutdown will revert to the Traffic Responsive mode after a full fifteen minutes of 
volume and occupancy data is obtained. 

2.6.3 Traffic Responsive Mode 

The Traffic Responsive mode is the primary operating mode of the UTCS/BPS 
Traffic System. In this mode, the computer selects the "best" available pattern for each 
section as a function of the latest smoothed traffic data, but is constrained to a maximum 
of one change every 15 minutes. The times for these changes, if they are required, are 
on the hour and each quarter-hour thereafter. 

The Traffic Responsive mode provides adaptive traffic-responsive area control 
wherein existing control patterns may be updated or new patterns may be introduced, 
where required. New control patterns are generated off-line. 

The selection of control parameters for a section of controllers is performed 
by locating the data history which is "closest" to the current smoothed data. The com- 
parison criterion used is "volume plus weighted occupancy" (volume + weighting factor 
x occupancy) which yields a realistic indication of existing traffic demand. 

Each history for a section of controllers is uniquely related to a set of control 
parameters (control patterns). The control pattern which is related to the best data-his- 
tory match is selected from the available control patterns. However, if the control pat- 
tern being imposed is one of these available patterns and its match is not significantly 
worse than the best which was computed, no change is initiated. 

The Traffic Responsive mode is selectable by the operator on a system (all sec- 
tions) or on an individual section basis. The request is immediately recorded by the com- 
puter and traffic responsive operation is in effect. The initial traffic responsive pattern 
selection will be made on the next 15 minute mark. 

2.6.4 Manual Pattern Mode 

The Manual Pattern mode is used primarily for handling unusual traffic conditions 
not provided for when operating under TOD or Traffic Responsive control. This 
control mode may be required during the checkout of traffic-responsive control patterns, 
or to provide rapid response, if the approximate time of the occurrence of an unusual traf- 
fic condition is known (i.e., ball game, concert or parade). 

2-13 



The Manual Pattern mode is selectable on an individual section basis only. The re- 
quest is immediately put into effect by the computer which affects a smooth transformation 
using transition cycles. Once the Manual Pattern mode has been put into effect, the sec- 
tion will continue to operate in this mode until the operator makes another mode change or, 
until the pattern selected is no longer valid for the time of day. If the Manual Pattern mode 
was in effect at the last shutdown, the mode will be over-ridden when the traffic system is 
placed on-line again. The mode will be automatically changed to TOD. 

2.7 Malfunction Detection 

The UTCS/BPS program provides for the continuous detection and recording of 
system malfunctions. In addition, the system reacts so that the effect of these failures on 
system operation is minimized. For example, if a detector fails, it automatically inhibits 
MOE computations on its associated link. The inoperative link thereby inhibits CIC opera- 
tion. If a controller failure is detected, it is automatically released from computer con- 
trol. 

Equipments which are continuously monitored for failures are as follows: 

(a) Controllers 

(b) Vehicle Detectors and associated Communications 

(c) Bus Detector and associated Communications 

(d) CPU # 1 and CPU # 2 

2.7.1 Controller Failure Detection 

All system controllers are continuously checked by the computer. Failures are 
identified as to number designation and location via the CRT displays, Map displays and 
printouts. 

Pre -timed controller failures are indicated if it is inferred from the A-Phase 
Green return that the controller is out of step with respect to the computer-generated A- 
Phase Green by two or more intervals at any time during a controller cycle. Thus, any 
failure in a controller and/or associated equipment (including electronics and communica- 
tions) which cause the local controller not to track the computer-generated intervals for 
stepping the controller cams, is detected as a controller failure. 



2-14 



Semi-actuated controller failures are indicated if the A-Phase Green return is not 
present duringthe 0.5 second time periodprior to the normal transmission of the Yield pulse. 
The computer takes the following steps when a controller failure is detected: 

(a) Places the controller in Standby (local control) 

(b) Indicates controller failure on Control Panel. 

(c) Updates the CRT and Map display failure status. 

(d) Records the failure for 15-minute printout. 

2.7.2 Detector and Detector Communications Failure Detection 



All system detectors (vehicle and bus detectors) with associated communications 
are continuously checked by the computer. Failures are identified as to type (detector or 
communication), number designation, and location via the CRT displays, map displays, 
and printouts. 

2.7.2.1 Vehicle Detector Failure Detection 



Vehicle detector actuations are transmitted to central communications in terms 
of two-frequency information (Table 3-2). In order to isolate a detector failure (with its 
electronics) from a communications failure, the computer makes tests on a continuous 
basis and registers the malfunctions accordingly. The criteria for the two types of fail- 
ures follows. 

A detector failure is indicated if either of the two following conditions are de- 
tected: 

(a) Presence has been indicated for a period greater than twelve minutes. 

(b) The detector car counts over its associated controller cycle exceeds a 
threshold of 32 vehicles. 

Both of these conditions are normally indicative of an on-street detector electronics mal- 
function. 



A communication failure is indicated if both of the following conditions are detec- 



ted: 



(a) Presence has not been indicated at the detector for three minutes, and 

(b) Presence has not been indicated over an interval exceeding 16 times the nor- 
mal vehicle gap length, based on time-of-day volume history for the link. 



2-15 



Both of these conditions are normally indicative of a loss of detector signals to the com- 
puter. It should be noted that it is possible that an actual detector failure, such as an 
open loop, will be indicated as a communication failure. 

2.7.2.2 Bus Detector Failure Detection 



Bus detector actuations are transmitted to Central Communications in terms of 
three -frequency intelligence (Table 3.2). A communication failure is determined directly 
by virtue of the three frequency transmission. The computer continuously checks the 
state of the Bus Error (BE) output line of the associated receiver in Central Communica- 
tions. If an "on" state is not indicated, a communication malfunction is registered. 

A bus detector failure is based on the detection of abnormal bus zone counts. The 
process combines the operation of the upstream and downstream detectors, and isolates 
the failure to the most probable of the two. The criteria used are as follows: 

(a) If the bus zone count is reset to zero (reset automatically whenever the measured 
bus zone count is less than zero) over two successive controller cycles, a detector 
malfunction is indicated for the upstream detector. (Note that when the bus zone count 

is negative, it signifies that buses are being counted out by the downstream detector and 
are not being counted in by the upstream detector. ) 

(b) If the bus zone count exceeds a threshold (maximum of 20) over two successive 
controller cycles, a detector malfunction is indicated for the downstream detector. (Note 
that when the bus zone count is excessive it signifys that buses are being counted in by the 
upstream detector and are not being counted out by the downstream detector. ) 

The requirement that criteria 1 and 2 above be evident over two successive con- 
troller cycles guards against the possibility of indicating a failure due to spurious bus 
counts. For example, it is possible that, when two buses which are side by side traverse 
or are stopped at a detector, spurious counts may be obtained. The two successive con- 
troller cycle requirement greatly reduces the probability of indicating such a situation as 
a detector malfunction. 

2.7.3 CPU Malfunction Detection 

CPU #1 and CPU #2 are checked periodically (once per minute) against each other 
or separately, depending on how they are started up. If CPU #2 is started up within two 
minutes after CPU #1, the malfunction detection process operates in the Dual Mode. If 



2-16 



CPU #2 is not started up within the two minutes, both CPU's operate in their own Single 

CPU Mode, and continue to operate that way until another start up of CPU #1 and CPU 

#2 is made satisfying the two minutes requirement. A description of the two modes follows. 

2.7.3.1 Dual Mode 

The BPS CPU scans the memory and randomly collects a data base. Upon com- 
pletion, it signals CPU #1. At this point the two CPU's execute the instruction repetoire 
independently and the answers are compared. If the answers do not agree, the audible 
alarm is activated and the system is shut down. The computer attempts to place the con- 
trollers in Standby using transition cycles. In addition, it attempts to print out a mes- 
sage on CRT #1 as follows: 

CPU FAILURE DETECTED AT 13:02. 

ATTEMPTING A GRACEFUL SHUTDOWN. 

MONITOR CONTROLLER STATUS TO DETERMINE EFFECTIVENESS OF SHUTODWN. 

IF SYSTEM DOES NOT RESPOND USE MANUAL RELEASE. 

If the system does not react, indicated by controllers not being returned to Standby (local 
control), all controllers should be released by the operator by depressing the MANUAL 
RELEASE pushbutton on the Control Panel. About two minutes should be allowed for a 
"graceful" shutdown. 

2.7.3.2 Single CPU Mode 

Each CPU exercises the instruction repertoire on a fixed set of data. The re- 
sults are compared with pre-stored answers. The three possible system reactions to a 
CPU failure are as follows: 

(a) CPU # 1 is operating alone. In that case a system shutdown as for the Dual 
Mode is attempted. 

(b) CPU # 1 and CPU # 2 are both operating and CPU # 2 fails its test. CPU 

# 1 then shuts down CPU # 2, inhibits BPS operation, and continues with UTCS operation. 

(c) CPU # 1 and CPU # 2 are both operating and CPU # 1 fails its test. In that 
case a system shutdown as for the Dual Mode is attempted. 



2-17 



2.7.4 CPU Malfunction Detection Via Control Panel 

CPU # 1 and CPU # 2 malfunction detection is also in effect via the Control Panel. 
The panel looks for a change of state from CPU # 1 within every two second interval. If 
this state change is not received, signifying that the computer is not functioning normally, 
the CPU # 1 Malfunction Light will be turned on, the Audible Alarm will be activated, and 
the Hold signals to all controllers will be released, placing them in Standby. The panel 
also looks for a discrete signal from the computer which is indicative of CPU # 2 status. 
If it changes from a normal to a failed condition, the CPU # 2 MALFUNCTION light will 
be turned on. CPU # 1 will, in turn, inhibit BPS operation. 



2-18 



SECTION 3 
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION 

A block diagram showing the interrelationship of the UTCS/BPS Central and 
Field equipments is presented in Figure 3-1. Figure 3-2 presents a floor plan layout of 
the Washington, D. C. Control Center. The following is a breakdown of the major Central 
and Field equipments: 

(a) Central Equipment 

(1) Traffic Control Console, Map Display and CRT Displays 

(2) UTCS and BPS Computers and auxiliary equipment 

a. Magnetic Tape Units 

b. Rapid Access Disc (RAD) Units 

c. Teletypewriter (TTY) Units 

d. Line Printer 

e. Card Reader and Card Punch 

(3) Computer Interface Unit (CIU) 

(4) Communications 

(5) Map Electronics Unit 

(6) Radio Link 

(b) Field Equipment 

(1) Controllers 

(2) Detector Loops and Electronics 

(3) Field Cabinets 

a. Vehicle Detector FS Transmitter 

b. Bus Detector FS Transmitter 

c. Controller FS Receiver 

d. Controller FS Transmitter 

e. Controller Adapters 

(4) On-Board Bus Equipment 

a. Transmitter 

b. Stop/Thru Switch 



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Figure 3-2. Floor Plan of UTCS/BPS Washington, D. C. , Control Center 



3-4 



3.1 Central Equipment 

3. 1. 1 Traffic Control Console and Map Display 

The Traffic Control Panel, CRT Display Units, and Cross-Reference Directory 
are arranged on a table to form a Control Console (Figure 3-3). The Control Console is 
positioned so that all portions of the wall- mounted Map Display are visible from the oper- 
ator's seated position. 
3.1.1.1 Traffic Control Panel 

Lighted pushbutton switches provide labeling of all selectable functions and also 
provide illumination and color-coding of the functions which have been selected. These 
features permit quick response and positive visual indication of the action taken by the op- 
erator. Interlocking of the switches is performed by solenoids built in the switches them- 
selves rather than external circuits. In addition to the pushbutton switches, thumbwheel 
switches are included to provide a means of selecting two 3-digit quantities and one 4-digit 
quantity. Lamp indicators, identical in appearance to the pushbutton switches, are in- 
cluded to show results of computer action. 

The Traffic Control Panel is divided into four groups. (See Figure 3-4): 

(a) System Control 

(b) Map Control 

(c) Malfunction Indicators 

(d) Status Display 

(a) System Control 

The System Control section, located on the right hand side of the Traffic Con- 
trol Panel, is arranged in five "levels". (See Figure 3-5.) 

Level 1 permits selection of one of three functional groups of the total UTCS/ 
BPS traffic system: Traffic Control, CIC, or Bus Priority. 

Level 2 permits selection of the total system for the selected functional oper- 
ation, or the appropriate subdiv ■ of the total system. Inappropriate subdivisions are 
not permitted, for example, s v .locking does not permit a Bus Zone selection on 

Level 2 in conjunction with a Tra. j Control selection on Level 1. 



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3-7 




Figure 3-5. Systen Control Section 



3-8 



Level 3 consists of a 4-digit thumbwheel. As indicated by the white inter- 
connecting lines on the panel, the thumbwheel setting is only appropriate in conjunction 
with a selection of SECTION, CONTROLLER, DETECTOR, COMMUNICATION, or BUS ZONE. 

Level 4 consists of seven pushbuttons of which only one selection is possible. 
If the selection is not appropriate and not consistent with selections on Levels 1 and 2, it 
cannot be implemented. For example, MANUAL PATTERN could not be selected, 
if the selection on Level 2 was CONTROLLER. 

Level 5 consists of a 3-digit thumbwheel. As indicated by the interconnecting 
white lines on the panels, the thumbwheel setting is only appropriate with a selection on 
Level 4 of MANUAL PATTERN, A-PHASE GREEN, OFFSET, or TIME EXTENSION. 

In the top right hand corner of the panel, in line with the three Level 1 push- 
button switches, are two additional pushbutton switches; WAIT/ERROR and ENTER/ 
READY. The ENTER/READY pushbutton must be pressed for each completed valid selec- 
tion. If the selection is made without error, the bottom half of the ENTER/READY push- 
button will light up green after three seconds, indicating that the computer has accepted 
and will act upon the Control Panel request. If an error is made by the operator, for ex- 
ample, if he tries to place a specific controller on-line that already has been under com- 
puter control, the bottom half of the WAIT/ERROR pushbutton will be illuminated red. 
This can be extinguished by depressing the pushbutton, or by making another entry which 
is valid. The upper half of the WAIT/ERROR pushbutton (WAIT) is illuminated if, after a 
valid entry has been made, the computer determines that changes in the system are al- 
ready in progress, such as a transition cycle, which may make unnecessary the need for 
the new operator change. Thus, the operator may be in a better position to judge at a 
later time if the change is really necessary. The computer vill not honor the original re- 
quest at a later time. The operator will have to re-enter the request if he so chooses. 
The WAIT light can be extinguished by depressing the WAIT/ERROR pushbutton, or by 
making another valid and accepted entry. 

In all cases, except one, a valid selection will require switch selections from 
4 or 5 levels. The one exception is in the case of System Shutdown. In this case the pro- 
per selection on Level 1 is TRAFFIC CONTROL in conjunction with the selection of SYSTEM 
SHUTDOWN on Level 2 . The ENTER/READY pushbutton is then depressed bypassing other 
levels. 



3-9 



In Level 4 there are two pushbuttons, ON LINE/ACTIVATE and STANDBY/ 
RELEASE, which have dual functions. The ON LINE and STANDBY portions of these 
switches are applicable only when TRAFFIC CONTROL is selected on Level 1. The top halves of 
these switches light up accordingly when selected. If CIC or BUS PRIORITY is selected 
on Level 1, the bottom halves of these pushbuttons are applicable, that is, ACTIVATE 
and RELEASE. 

(b) Map Control 

The Map Control section, located in the center portion of the panel, is ar- 
ranged in three "levels". (See Figure 3-6.) 

Level 1 permits selection of one of three functional groups of the total UTCS 
system: Traffic Control, CIC, and BPS. 

Level 2 consists of two groups: Surveillance Display and Controller Display. 
A selection in the Surveillance Display group controls the link lights (orange and yellow 
arrows) in the Map Display and a selection in the Controller Display group controls the 
controller or intersection lights (red or green arrows). Appropriate selections from these 
two groups can be made simultaneously. 

Three selections can be made on Level 2 regardless of the Level 1 selection 
as follows: 

(1) Surveillance Display 'OFF" - simultaneously with any Controller Dis- 
play selection. 

(2) Controller Display "A-PHASE GREEN" - simultaneously with any Sur- 
veillance Display selection. 

(3) Controller Display "OFF" - simultaneously with any Surveillance Dis- 
play selection. 

Interlocking between Levels 1 and 2 prevents selections which are not appropriate. For 
example, FLOW DATA cannot be selected in conjunction with a CIC selection on Level 1. 

Level 3 consists of a matrix of switches, six down and six across. Selection 
of one of six parameters and one of six threshold values for control of the link lights in 
the Map Display is possible. Level 3 is entered only when FLOW DATA is selected on 
Level 2. 



3-10 




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3-11 



Note that the first two parameter switches in Level 3 have dual application. 
The top portions of the switches with the white background (OCCUPANCY and VOLUME) 
are applicable for a TRAFFIC CONTROL selection on Level 1. The buttom portions of 
the switches with a yellow background (PASSENGER GAIN and BUSES HELPED) are 
applicable for a BPS selection on Level 1. 

The ENTER/READY pushbutton is located in the upper right hand corner of 
the Map Control section. The bottom half of the switch, when depressed, will light up 
green within three seconds, indicating that the request has been accepted by the computer. 
The computer will process Surveillance Display and Controller Display selections simul- 
taneously, that is, the ENTER/READY pushbutton need be depressed but once. The ap- 
propriate selections are as follows: 

Level 1 Selection Surveillance Display Controller Display 



Traffic Control 


Flow Data or Failed 


Failed or Status 


BPS 


Flow Data or Failed 


Status 


CIC 


Not Applicable 


Status 



Other pushbutton switches in the Map Control < r : c p are located on the top of 
the panel in line with the Level 1 switches. These switches v rate independently of the 
computer. and do not require that the ENTER/READY pushbutton be depressed. These 
switches and their functions are as follows: 

DISPLAY ON-OFF - A pushbutton, with a green background, turns the power 
to the Map Display on or off when depressed. 

FLASH - A pushbutton, with a yellow background, causes the link lights being 
displayed on the map to flash on and off when depressed. The lights flash when the switch 
light is on. The use of the flash mode is a matter of operator preference. It can be use- 
ful in highlighting the link lights in a background of controller lights. 

DISPLAY TEST #1 AND DISPLAY TEST #2 - These are two pushbuttons, with 
yellow backgrounds, used to test whether any of the Map Display lamps are inoperative. 
Display Test #1 is in effect when DISPLAY TEST #1 pushbutton is depressed (illuminated). 
In order to put Display Test #2 in effect, DISPLAY TEST #1 pushbutton must be depressed 
again (lamp out), and then depress DISPLAY TEST #2. Details as to which lights are 
encompassed by tests 1 and 2 are given in paragraph 3. 1>. 1. 2f, Map Display Lamp Tests. 

3-12 



(c) Malfunction Indicators 

There are seven lamp indicators, having red backgrounds, which are located 
in the upper left hand portion of the panel. (See Figure 3-7. ) These are as follows: 

(1) CPU#1 

(2) CPU #2 

(3) TRAFFIC SYSTEM CONTROLLER 

(4) TRAFFIC SYSTEM DETECTOR 

(5) TRAFFIC SYSTEM COMMUNICATION 

(6) BPS DETECTOR 

(7) BPS COMMUNICATION 

The system continuously monitors system components, including its own CPU's. If a 
malfunction is indicated, the computer sends a signal to the panel which lights the appro- 
priate indicator. 

The panel looks for a change of state from CPU #1 every two seconds. If it 
does not occur, signifying that the computer is not functioning normally, the CPU #1 mal- 
function light will be turned on. If a failure is detected in CPU #1, the UTCS is placed in 
Standby (all controllers are released from computer control). In addition, the panel looks 
for a discrete signal from the computer which is indicative of CPU #2 status. If a failure 
is detected in CPU #2, the UTCS continues to operate. However, all BPS operation is 
released. 

For the other malfunctions, the red light remains on until the operator ac- 
knowledges the failure by making the appropriate entry in the System Control section of 
the panel. 

Above the Malfunction Indicators are located four pushbuttons as follows: 

(1) PANEL ON-OFF 

(2) DISABLE FAULT RELEASE 

(3) MANUAL RELEASE 

(4) ALARM DISABLE 



3-13 




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3-14 



The PANEL ON-OFF pushbutton, which has a green background, turns power on and off 
to the panel. The Disable Fault Release pushbutton, which has a red background, will 
inhibit the dropping of the system into Standby due to the detection of a CPU #1 fault when 
it is depressed (light on). This pushbutton is used only when it is known by the operator 
that the CPU #1 malfunction indication is due to the circuitry from the computer to the 
panel light, and not due to the CPU itself. This will permit normal system operation by 
overriding the fault release which would otherwise occur. The MANUAL RELEASE push- 
button, which has a red background, will release all controllers to local control when de- 
pressed (light on). The operator uses the MANUAL RELEASE, if he determines that the 
system is operating abnormally and it may not be possible to place it in Standby by using 
a System Function entry on the panel. The ALARM DISABLE pushbutton, which has a 
yellow background, will inhibit the audible alarm when depressed (light on). If the light 
is off, a failure detected in any one of the possible malfunctions (except CPU #2) will cause 
the audible alarm to turn on. The alarm can be turned off by depressing the switch (light 
on). While the light is on, any subsequent malfunctions will not cause the audible alarm 
to turn on. 

Three of the above switches: PANEL ON-OFF, DISABLE FAULT RELEASE 
and MANUAL RELEASE are guarded switches. They require that the guard be lifted 
in order to depress them. The guards were included to prevent the operator from 
depressing these critical switches inadvertently. 

(d) Statr ::■: -lay 

The flatus Display section, located in the lower left hand portion of the panel, 
is arranged in th; :c "I vels". (See Figure 3-8.) 

Lev 1 1 permits selection of CRT #1 or CRT #2, located on the left and right 
side of the consoL tabic respectively. 

Level 2 permits selection of one of seven possible display pages including 
both the Traffic System and the BPS System. These are as follows: 



3-15 




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3-16 



Level 2 Switch Selection Display Page 

TRAFFIC SYSTEM FAILURE Failure Status 

TRAFFIC SYSTEM System Status 

CONTROLLER Controller Status 

TRAFFIC SYSTEM DETECTOR Detector Status 

TRAFFIC SYSTEM INTERSECTION Intersection Status 
BPS SYSTEM BPS System Status 

BPS INTERSECTION BPS Intersection Status 

Note that the Failure Status page includes BPS failures as well as Traffic System failures. 
Details of these pages are given in Appendix C. 

Level 3 consists of a 3-digit thumbwheel. As indicated by the interconnecting 
white lines on the panel, the thumbwheel setting is only appropriate with a selection on 
Level 2 of TRAFFIC SYSTEM INTERSECTION or BPS INTERSECTION. 

In line w;'.h Level 1 are three additional pushbuttons: ENTER/READY, 
ERROR, and SUPPRE. 3 I IT. The EN^ER/READY must be depressed for each 

valid selection. If thi £ 1 ... :; '...■> made without error, the bottom half of the ENTER/ 
READY pushbutton will light _> reen after three seconds, indicating that the computer 
has accepted and will act upon the Control Panel request. If an error is made by the oper- 
ator, for example, if he entered an invalid intersection number, the ERROR light would 
be turned on by the computer. The ERROR light can be extinguished by depressing the 
pushbutton or by making another valid entry. The SUPPRESS PRINTOUT pushbutton, when 
depressed (light on), will inhibit the printout of the Fifteen Minute Report. It will not in- 
hibit the End of Day Report upon system shutdown, however. 

A CRT display page can be obtained on either or both CRT units. Any of the 
seven possible displays can be obtained on a CRT, with anyone of the remaining six dis- 
plays on the other CRT. Entry or change of a CRT display can only be made one at a time, 
however. 



3-17 



(e) Simultaneous Control Panel Entries 

When entered separately, each of the three possible panel selections: System 
Control, Map Control, and Status Display will require three seconds before an indication 
that the computer has serviced the request. The three second delay may be longer if more 
than one ENTER pushbutton is depressed simultaneously. System Control requests are serviced 
first, then Map Control requests, and finally Status Display requests. Consequently, if a 
System Control request is entered before the computer has started to process a lower pri- 
ority request, the System Control request will be honored first, thus delaying the servic- 
ing of the lower priority request by at least three seconds. 

(f) Valid Control Panel Entries 

Valid panel entry combinations for System Control, Map Control, and Status 
Display are summarized and tabulated in Appendix B. 

3.1.1.2 Map Display 

The Map Display graphically illustrates the traffic signals, traffic parameters, 
and equipment status for the area of Washington, D. C. which is controlled by the UTCS/ 
BPS instrumentation. (See Figure 3-9.) The Map Display and its associated electronics, 
operate in conjunction with the Control Panel and the computer. The map also operates 
directly, in conjunction with signals from local controllers and the District's radio link, 
when the computer is off-line (computer in Standby). 

(a) Display Arrows 

Three types of arrows are used: intersection arrows, lir.i: r.cluding 

through and turning), and large one-way arrows on 15th and 17th Streets, intersec- 

tion arrows,, indicative of controller operation and status, are illuminated green or red; 
the link arrows are illuminated both yellow and orange. The yellow arrows are mostly 
directed west and north while the orange arrows are directed east and south. The large 
arrows on 15th Street (pointing north) and 17th Street (pointing south) are illuminated green 
by signals from the District's radio link, which indicate when these streets become one-way. 
The 15th Street arrow is illuminated during the PM peak hours, and the 17th Street arrow 
is illuminated during the AM peak hours. 

(b) Display Legend and Operation 

The legend, depicting the possible display modes, is located in the lower 
right hand corner of the display. A summary of the various legends, together with the 
operation of the intersection and link arrows, is given in Table 3-1. 



3-18 




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CO 






CO 

CQ 

co 
O 
H 



05 

I 

CO 



3-19 



(c) A- Phase Green Operation 

In the A- Phase Green (A0 Green) mode, the intersection arrows are control- 
led by the A- Phase Green return signals from the controllers. In addition, the large one- 
way green arrows are controlled by signals from the District's radio link. This mode is 
in effect when the computer is in Standby (indicated by the legend on the Map Display), or 
when the A- Phase Green mode is selected via the Map Display control when the computer 
is on-line. When in this mode, all of the legends concerned with controllers or intersec- 
tion lights are turned off. These include Controller Status, CIC Status, BPS Controller 
Status and Controllers Failed. 

(d) Simultaneous Operation of Intersection and Link Arrows 

Any one of the six possible intersection display modes can operate simultan- 
eously with any one of the ten link display modes. (Refer to Table 3-1. ) Two legends on the 
map will accordingly be illuminated, except for the case where the A-Phase Green mode is 
selected for the intersection display. In this ca.^e, only the link display legend is illuminated. 

(e) Early Warning Link Arrows 

There are twelvt early warning link arrows dispersed beyond the periphery 
of the UTCS network on the Map Display. These are links which are instrumented with 
single detectors. The applicable display modes for these links are: Occupancy, Volume, 
Speed, and Surveillance Equipment Failed. 

(f) Map Display Lamp Tests 

Map Display lamp tests are made directly from the Control Panel, independ- 
ently of computer operation. There are two tests: Display Test 1 and Display Test 2. 

Display Test 1 illuminates the following: 

(1) Intersection arrows red 

(2) East and north directed link arrows 

(3) Test legend green 

Display Test 2 illuminates the following: 

(1) Intersection arrows green 

(2) West and south directed link arrows 



3-20 



(3) All legends (green or red) 



(4) One-way arrows green 

TABLE 3-1. MAP DISPLAY LEGEND AND OPERATION 



Legend 


Operation of Arrows 


Threshold Applicability 


Legend Illumination 


Occupancy 


Link arrows illuminate 


Links for which the se- 


Green 




in correspondence with 


lected threshold on the 






Traffic System Links. * 


Control Panel are ex- 
ceeded are illuminated. 




Volume 


Same as above 


Same as above 


Green 


Speed 


Same as above 


Links for which the speed 
is less than the selected 
threshold are illuminated. 


Green 


Queue 


Illuminates only link 
arrows which cor- 
respond to Q- instru- 
mented links. 


Same as for occupancy 


Green 


V ' J 


Same as for queue above 


Same as for occupancy 


Green 




Same as for queue above 


Same as for occupancy 


Green 


■ pger 


Link arrows illuminate 


Bus zones for which the 


Green 




in correspondence with 


passenger gain is less 






bus zones. 


than the selected threshold 
are illuminated. 




Buses 


Same as for passenger 


Bus zones for which the 


Green 


Helped 


gain. 


buses helped is less than 
the selected threshold are 
illuminated. 




CIC 


Intersection arrows 


Not applicable 


Green 


Status 


for controllers acti- 
vated (green) and those 
not activated or in- 
hibited (red). 







♦The queue- instrumented (multi- detector) link is displayed when there is more than one 
link in a given direction which includes a queue link. 

3-21 



Table 3-1. Map Display Legend and Operation (Continued) 



Legend 


Operation of Arrows 


Threshold Applicability 


Legend Illumination 


Controller 


Intersection arrows for 


Not applicable 


Green 


Status 


controllers on-line 
(green) and those in 
standby (red). 






BPS Con- 


Intersection arrows for 


Not applicable 


Green 


troller 


controllers activated 






Status 


for bus priority oper- 
ation (green) and those 
not activated or inhibited 
(red). 






Surveillance 


Link arrows illuminate 


Not applicable 


Red 


Equipment 


in correspondence with 






Failed 


traffic system links 
which have a detector 
or communication 








failure. 






BPS Sur- 


Link arrows illuminate 


Not applicable 


Red 


veillance 


in correspondence with 






Equipment 


BPS zones which have 






Failed 


a detector or communi- 
cation failure. 






Control- 


Intersection arrows for 


Not applicable 


Red 


lers 


controllers which have 






Failed 


failed (red) and non- 
failures (green). 






Computer 


Not applicable 


Not applicable 


Illuminated red if 


in Standby 






computer is not 
on-line. 



3-22 



Table 3-1. Map Display Legend and Operation (Continued) 



Legend 


Operation of Arrows 


Threshold Applicability 


Legend Illumination 


Threshold 


Not applicable 


Legend for 4- digit 
threshold 


Not illuminated 


Threshold 


Not applicable 


4 digits, corres- 


Green 


digits 




pond to threshold 
selection in appli- 
cable display modes. 




Test 


Display Test 1 ON. 
Intersection arrows 
illuminate red and 
half of link arrows are 
illuminated. 


Not applicable 


Green 


(All On) 


Display Test 2 ON. 


Not applicable 


All Legends illumi- 




Intersection arrows 




nated red and green 




illuminate green and 




as applicable. 




other half of link 








arrows are illumi- 








nated. 







3.1.1.3 CRT Display Units 

The two CRT's operate in conjunction with the Control Panel and the computer to 
present the desired System, Intersection, and Failure Status pages. The computer paints 
and updates the displayed pages based on Control Panel requests as well as its stored 
memory of system configurations. The computer updates the displayed data once every 
twenty five seconds. 



3-23 



(a) Equipment Description 

The display unit consists of a 12 inch TV monitor tube, green luminescence, 
a keyboard and its associated electronics. Alphanumeric characters are illuminated in 
accordance with coded inputs from the computer. Controls on the front panel, located 
behind the keyboard, are similar to those of a commercial TV receiving set. The con- 
trols are as follows: BRIGHTNESS, HORIZONTAL HOLD, POWER ON-OFF, VERTICAL 
HOLD and CONTRAST. The control settings are quite stable and, once set, do not re- 
quire adjustment in normal operation. On the rear of the display unit chassis are two 
switches, a MODE switch and a BAUD RATE switch which are set to match the interface 
mode and speed for communication with the computer. The settings of these switches are 
fixed and are as follows: 

MODE switch- Full 

BAUD RATE -2400 

The keyboard is not used in normal system operation. It is utilized in trou- 
bleshooting CRT Display Unit malfunctions. 

(b) CRT Display Pages 

There are seven CRT display pages as follows: 

(1) Failure Status 

(2) System Status 

(3) Controller Status 

(4) Detector Status 

(5) Intersection Status 

(6) BPS System Status 

(7) BPS Intersection Status 

Typical display pages for the seven types are presented in Appendix C, Status Reports and 
Displays. 



3-24 



3.1.2 UTCS and BPS Computers 

The UTCS and BPS computers consist of two XDS SIGMA 5 CPU's with associ- 
ated memory and electronics (CPU #1, UTCS and CPU #2, BPS). Each CPU has its own 
Processor Control Panel and 16 thousand word core memory. In addition, a 32 thousand 
word core memory is shared by the two units. Together, the two computers are comprised 
of seven cabinets. (See Figures 3-2 and 3-10.) Note in Figure 3-1, that communication 
between the two computers is indicated. In effect, both CPU's have access to the common 
core memory. 

3. 1. 2. 1 Magnetic Tape Units 

Three magnetic tape drives are used by the UTCS/BPS system. Two drives, as- 
signed to Magnetic Tape Controller E, are dedicated to the UTCS CPU. Either drive can be 
used, but not simultaneously. The units are used to load the UTCS/BPS program tape 
(when not loading from the RAD), to make a "save tape" of the UTCS/BPS program, and to 
make a tape of the 15 minute UTCS/BPS MOE's. The third drive, assigned to Magnetic 
Tape Controller D, is dedicated to the BPS CPU. It is used exclusively for the recording of 
the UTCS/BPS raw histories. 

3.1.2.2 Rapid Access Disc 

The RAD is comprii ed of two cabinets located to the right of the BPS CPU cabinets 
(Figure 3-10). It is accessed only by the UTCS CPU. The UTCS/BPS program (KING) and 
the total of the UTCS patterns are stored in the RAD. Program KING is read into the core 
memory as well as the appropriate UTCS patterns when the UTCS computer is brought on-line. 
The RAD is normally accessed on a 15 minute cycle to transfer the appropriate section patterns 
into the core memory. In addition, it is accessed on demand for pattern transfer, whenever a 
Manual Pattern or Time of Day mode change is made by the operator via the Control Panel. 

3. 1. 2. 3 Teletypewriters 

Two TTY's are used; one is dedicated to the UTCS CPU and the other to the 
BPS CPU. The UTCS TTY is used to communicate with the UTCS CPU in starting up the 
UTCS/BPS program either from the RAD or from a system tape. (See Section 4 for a 
step-by-step procedure for starting up program KING. ) The computer also communicates 
"Error Messages" via the TTY such as, operator keying errors, peripheral unit opera- 
tion switching errors, and peripheral unit failure errors. 



3-25 




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3-26 



The Line Printer and Magnetic Tapes are continuously monitored while the 
UTCS/BPS program is in operation. An error message will be typed out, if an error 
condition exists, when the unit is commanded by the program. (A listing of the common 
error messages is given in Appendix D. ) 

The BPS TTY is used in conjunction with the BPS CPU. It prints out error mes- 
sages concerned only with the BPS dedicated Magnetic Tape Unit and the generation of the 
raw history tape. It is not used to communicate with the BPS CPU. 

3.1.2.4 Line Printer 

The Line Printer unit is used in conjunction with the UTCS/BPS program and is 
controlled by the UTCS CPU. It provides a printout of the UTCS/BPS 15-Minute and End 
of Day Reports. Typical reports are presented in Appendix C. This device is used 
in both on-line and off-line operations. 

3.1.2.5 Card Reader 



T 1 j Card Reader is used in conjunction with the UTCS CPU. It is used off-line 
for implem program ciianges as well as with an off-line program for implementing 

pattern cha- '. 'u .is. 

3.1.2.6 c 

Til Punch is used in conjunction v.: .-j UTCS CPU. It is used for out- 

putting punched cards in conjunction with off-line programs. It is also used directly for 
card deck duplication. 

3.1.3 Computer Interface Unit 

The CIU or I/O Multiplexer provides the interface between the UTCS Computer 
and external Central peripheral equipments, and incoming and outgoing signals to Central 
communications . The signal termination in the CIU include incoming vehicle and bus detector 
actuations, incoming controller A- Phase Green return signals, computer- generated out- 
going controller "hold" and "advance" commands, command signals to the Map Display, 
synchronization signals from the radio link, and signals to and from the Control Panel. 
The terminations are in a parallel configuration, that is, a line exists for each detector, 
controller, controller cycle synch pulse, etc. Signals at the terminal points are discrete 
signals which are nominally +6. 5 volts for the "on" state. 



3-27 



The UTCS Computer accesses the CIU sequentially on 32 lines. All of the ter- 
minal signal states are read into the computer, or transmitted from the computer, on a 
1/32 second cycle basis. 

3.1.4 Communications 

Central communications provides the interface between the incoming and out- 
going telephone lines and the CIU. Receivers are provided on incoming lines and trans- 
mitters on the outgoing lines. A summary of the interface relationships of the various 
signals with Central communications and the CIU is presented in Table 3-2. 

3. 1. 5 Map Electronics Unit 

The Map Electronics Unit is housed in a single cabinet. It is used to decode the 
display code being outputted by the UTCS Computer and available at terminal points in the 
CIU. Twelve discrete lines are used between the CIU and this unit. Nine of the lines form 
a BCD code which define 512 unique control points on the map, two lines are then used to 
define the on-off state of two map lamps at each control point, thus providing control of 
1024 individual lamps, and one line transmits the synchronization discrete signals. 
The Map Electronics Unit processes the code each time a change in the state of the syn- 
chronization bit occurs. This is programmed to chanr at a rate of twenty-four times 
over a 1/32 second interval. 

3. 1.6 Radio Link 

The Radio Link consists of a radio receiver and electronics which are used to 
synchronize the UTCS computer cycles with the District's master clock. (Refer to para- 
graph 2 . 2 for a description of the operation. ) The receiver output is fed to six decoders which feed 
six channels. The discrete pulses are transmitted to the CIU in synchronism with the 
start of six different master cycle lengths. In addition, two discrete outputs are obtained 
from the decoders which are fed directly to the Map Display for illuminating the 15th Street 
and 17th Street one-way arrows (refer to paragraph 3. 1. 1. 2 at the appropriate time of day. 



3-28 



TABLE 3-2. SUMMARY OF TELEPHONE LINES /COMMUNICATIONS /CIU INTERFACE 



Signal 
Type 



Communication 
Module Type 



Remarks 



Vehicle 
Detector 



Bus 
Detector 



A-Phase 
Green Re- 
turn 

Hold- 
Advance 
Commands 



2- Frequency 
Receiver 



3- Frequency 
Receiver 



2- Frequency 
Receiver 



3- Frequency 
Transmitter 



A frequency (f ) on incoming line indicates no pre- 

sence at detector, whereas a carrier shifted to f 

' m 

indicates presence. The on-off state of the associ- 
ated discrete output line to the CIU is affected accord- 
ingly. 

A frequency (f ) on the incoming line indicates a 
Stop Bus. The on-off state of the Bus Stop (BS) dis- 
crete output line to the CIU is affected accordingly. 

A frequency (f ), (f ), or (f ) on the incoming line 
indicates carrier is normal. The on-off state of the 
Bus Error (BE) discrete output line to the CIU is 
affected accordingly. 

A freouency (f ) on the incoming line indicates a Thru 
Bus. The on-off state of the Bus Thru (BT) discrete 
output line to the CIU is affected accordingly. 

Same as vehicle detector except that presence refers 
to A- Phase Green signal. 



A logic 1 from the CIU "Hold" line will output a car- 
rier at frequency (f ) to the associated controller 
telephone pair. 

A logic 1 from the CIU "Advance" line will output a 
frequency (f ) to the associated controller telephone 
pair. 

A "test" logic 1 to the (f ) input of transmitter will 
set up a test of controller communications. (Refer 
to UTCS/BPS Traffic System Maintenance Manual. ) 



3-29 



3.2 Field Equipment 

3.2.1 Controllers 

The UTCS utilizes two types of controllers; Pre-timed and Semi- actuated. (See 
the glossary of UTCS terms in Appendix A for a definition of these controllers. ) The 
controllers, together with the controller adapter and other field equipment, are housed 
in field cabinets which are located in the vicinity of the signal heads which they control. 

3.2.2 Detector Loops and Electronics 

The UTCS/BPS sensing equipment is comprised of vehicle and bus detectors. 
Vehicle detectors consist of inductive loops, embedded in the roadway, which are fed to their 
associated electronics. Bus detectors consist of antenna loops, also embedded in the 
roadway, which are fed to their associated electronics. The electronics of both types 
are located in nearby field cabinets. 

3.2.2.1 Vehicle Detectors 

Vehicle detector loops (6 foot by 6 foot) straddle only one lane. Adjacent lanes 
in the same direction are instrumented in various locations of the UTCS complex with 
each lane having its own associated detector. UTCS links are instrumented with one, 
two, or three detectors. The nominal locations of these detectors relative to the 
downstream stop bar are as follows: 

One Detector Link - 210 ft. (V ') 

Two Detector Link - 35 ft. (Qj 

210 ft. (Q 2 ) 

Three Detector Link - 35 ft. (Qj 

210 ft. (Q 2 ) 
365 ft. (Q 3 ) 

Refer to Vehicle Detector Table in the Cross-Reference Directory for actual locations of 
the UTCS detectors. 

The vehicle detector electronics outputs a pulse which is fed to the associated 
vehicle detector 2 Frequency Shift (FS) transmitter when a vehicle passes over the de- 
tector. The width of the pulse is related to the vehicle speed. 



3-30 



3.2.2.2 Bus Detectors 

Bus detector antennas straddle all the traffic lanes on an approach to an inter- 
section. Two bus detectors are used for an approach. The nominal locations of 
these detectors relative to the downstream stop bar are as follows: 

Bus Detector #1 - 25 ft. (Bj) 

Bus Detector #2 - 195 ft. (Bj 

Refer to Bus Detector Table in the Cross-Reference Directory for actual locations of 
BPS detectors. 

The bus detector electronics is a dual channel receiver tuned to receive either 
of two frequencies, 168 kHz and 182 kHz. The bus detector antenna loop transmits a 
168 kHz if a Stop Bus signal is detected, and a 182 kHz if a Thru Bus signal is detected. 
The bus detector electronics outputs a pulse of fixed width to either of two lines, one 
corresponds to a Stop Bus and the other a Thru Bus, which are fed to the associated bus 
detector 3FS transmitter. 

3.2.3 Field Cabinets 

In addition to detector electronics modules, vehicle detector 2FS transmitters, 
bus detector 3FS transmitters, a controller 3FS receiver, controller 2FS transmit- 
ters, and controller adapter modules are housed in the field cabinets (CB). Refer to 
the Field Cabinet and/or the Electronics Cabinet Tables in the Cross-Reference Dir- 
ectory for a listing and locations of the various modules. Note that the Electronics 
Cabinets (EB) contain vehicle and/or detector electronics, but do not include the actual 
controller mechanism or communications equipment. 

The vehicle detector 2FS transmitter is keyed by the input pulse from the detector 
electronics. A frequency (f ) is transmitted over the telephone pair when no presence is 
indicated, and is shifted by 60 Hz to a frequency (f ) when presence is indicated. 

The bus detector 3FS transmitter is keyed by the pulse on either of two lines 

from the bus detector electronics. With no pulse present, the output to the telephone pair 

is a carrier (f ). If the pulse is on the Stop Bus line, a frequency (f ) is transmitted; and 

if the pulse is on the Thru Bus line, a frequency (f ) is transmitted. 

s 



3-31 



The controller 3FS receiver accepts the frequency transmitted from the telephone 
pair originating in the communications equipment at the Central site. If an (f ) signal is 
received on the telephone line, a "hold" pulse is generated, the controller is released 
from local control, and brought under computer control. If an (f ) signal is received on 
the telephone line, the controller is still held under computer control; and a pulse is 
generated which advances the controller cam one interval. 

The controller transmitter is a two-frequency transmitter. It transmits a sig- 
nal (f ) when keyed by a pulse corresponding to A- Phase Green from the controller via 
the controller adapter. In the absence of the A- Phase Green pulse, it transmits a signal 

The controller adapter interfaces the controller with the transmitters and 
receivers and thereby the telephone lines. The Hold command from the controller 3FS 
receiver is at a 12 volt level. The Advance pulses from the controller 3FS receiver 
are at a volt level. These are transformed to a 115 volt level by relay operation 
before applying them to controller inputs. The controller A- Phase Green pulse from 
the controller is reduced to a 12 volt level which in turn is fed to its controller 2FS 
transmitter. A relay is also included, which is actuated when the Test signal is 
present on the controller 3FS receiver output. The Test signal, originating at Central 
Communications, is fed into the controller adapter which permits the test of overall 
controller communications including Central modules, telephone lines, and controller 
cabinet modules. (Refer to UTCS/BPS Maintenance Manual. ) 

3.2.4 On-Board Bus Equipment 

The on-board bus equipment consists of a dual frequency transmitter mounted 
on the underside of participating buses. A small tuned loop antenna is an integral part 
of the transmitter chassis. A two-position toggle switch, mounted on the driver's steer- 
ing column, is used' to control the frequency of transmission to distinguish between Stop 
and Thru Bus signals. 



3-32 



SECTION 4 
OPERATING PROCEDURES 

4. 1 System Start -Up 

System start-up is described for the condition where the system has previously 
been operating and recently shut down, for example, overnight or over a holiday. 

4. 1. 1 Power On Procedure 

It is recommended that the power to several of the UTCS/EF3 equipments be 
maintained after system shutdown. These equipments are: 

(a) UTCS CPU 

(b) BPS CPU 

(c) CIU 

(d) Map Display Cabinet 

(e) RAD's 

Equipments for which it is recommended that the power be removed after system shutdown 
are: 

(a) CRT Display Units 

(b) Control Panel 

(c) Line Printer 

(d) Magnetic Tape Units 

(e) Map Display (via Control Panel) 

(f) TTY's 

(g) Communications Cabinets 

Thus, as part of the start-up procedure, the power to the "off" units has to be 
turned on. In addition, a check should be made to ascertain that power to the "on" units 
is actually on. A summary of the switch conditions and locations for the various units is 
presented in Table 4-1. 

Before start-up of the UTCS/BPS program, a check of the Map Display and Con- 
trol Panel lamps is desirable. (Refer to paragraph 3. 1. 1. 2 for details of Map Display Lamp 



4-1 



TABLE 4-1. UTCS/BPS POWER SWITCH SUMMARY 





Power After 






Unit 


Shutdown 


Switch Location 


Remarks 


CPU #1 


ON 


Left hand side of CPU Control 


Pushbutton lights 






Panel 


when on. 


CPU #2 


ON 


Same as CPU #1 


Same as CPU #1 


CIU 


ON 


Remote unit power switch 


Power on when 






assembly in computer 


CPU #1 is on. 


Communications 


OFF 


Located on bottom panel on 


Power toggle switch 


Cabinets 




each of ten cabinets 


is covered by a red 
guard. 


Map Display 


ON 


On chassis of two power 


5 volt supply on con- 


Cabinet 




supplies, mounted in cabinet 


tinuously. 28 volt 
supply shut off re- 
motely via Control 
Panel. 


CRT Display 


OFF 


On chassis behind keyboard 


, 


Units 




(which swings out) 


- 


Control Panel 


OFF 


On Control Panel in the top 


Pushbutton lights 






left hand corner 


green when on. 


Line Printer 


OFF 


On right side of Line Printer 


Pushbutton lights 






Cabinet 


when on. 


Magnetic Tape 


OFF 


On left side of tape unit 


Pushbutton lights 


Units 




cabinets 


when on. Turn 
power on for units 
to be used. 


Map Display 


OFF 


Top center of Control Panel 


Pushbutton lights 
green when on. 
Turns on the 2 8 volt 
supply in the Map 
Display Cabinet. 


TTY's 


OFF 


On the TTY keyboard 





4-2 



Tests.) Control Panel lamps are tested simply by depressing the switches. A check of 
the Line Printer and TTY paper supply should be made and reloaded as required. 

4.1.2 CPU Start-Up 

Both CPU #1 and CPU #2 are started up for normal UTCS/BPS operation. The 
UTCS traffic system can operate with CPU #1 alone, if a raw history tape is not required. 
The UTCS/BPS program (KING) is normally loaded into core memory from the RAD, but 
can be loaded from a system tape. 

4.1.2.1 CPU #1 Start-Up From RAD 

The step-by-step procedure for starting up CPU #1 from the RAD follows: 

Step 1. Check that the initial CPU switch positions are set according to Figure 
4-1. Note that the COMPUTE switch at the lower right hand corner of 
the panel is in the IDLE position, and that the INSERT, STORE, DATA, 
INSTR ADDR, and DISPLAY switches are in the neutral position. 

Step 2. Place SENSE switch #3 and SENSE switch #4 in the or down position. 

Step 3. Dial in O-F-0 on UNIT ADDRESS thunbwheels located in the center of 
the CPU Control Panel. 

Step 4. Depress CPU RESET/CLEAR and SYS RESET/CLEAR pushbuttons on 
The CPU Control Panel simultaneously. Note that bit #6 in the Display 
Register lights up when switches are released. If no bits in the Display 
Register are illuminated, repeat Step 4. 

Step 5. Depress I/O RESET and LOAD pushbuttons. 

Step 6. Move COMPUTE toggle switch from the IDLE to the RUN position. The 
RUN light on the CPU Control Panel comes on. 

Note 

After the read-in of the RAD into memory, the 
computer prints out a message on the TTY. 

Step 7. Look for message SIGMA 5/7, RBM, VERSION COl. 

Step 8. Place SENSE switch #3 into the 1 position if 15 minute magnetic tape 

recordings are not desired. Place SENSE switch #4 into the 1 position 
if the system status at shutdown is not to be read in from the RAD. 
Otherwise, these switches should be left in the position. 



4-3 




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4-4 



Step 9. Look for "! ! KEY -IN" message and key in date and time as follows: 
DT 3,6,72,7,15 

A space must be keyed after DT. The fields, in order, represent month, 
day, year, hour, and minute. Twenty four hour military time is used. 

Step 10. Depress NEW LINE Key on TTY. 

Step 11. Depress INTERRUPT key on TTY. Note keyboard light comes on which 
means the monitor is waiting. 

Step 12. Look for '*! ! KEY-IN" message on TTY and key in RUN KING followed 
by NEW LINE. 

Step 13. Look for message on TTY from computer indicating program KING is 
loaded as follows: 

! ! BCKG USED BY FGD 
! ! LOADED PROG KING 

Note 
CPU #1 malfunction indicator on Control Panel is now extinguished if program is 
properly loaded. 
4.1.2.2 CPU #1 Start- Up from System Tape 

The step- by- step procedure for starting up CPU #1 from a system tape follows: 
Step 1. Mount tape on either of the UTCS CPU tape drives (left or center drives). 
Step 2. Depress the LOAD pushbutton on the tape unit. 
Step 3. When the tape reaches load point (stops) depress the START pushbutton 

on the tape unit. 
Step 4. Dial in number of tape unit on UNIT ADDRESS thumbwheel. Appropriate 
numbers are either O-E-0 (left) for O-E-l (center) depending on selec- 
tion of Tape Drive. (See Note.) 

Note: The center and right switches of the UNIT ADDRESS each have 16 positions 
numbered O through F (hexadecimal) which designate a device controller and 
device under the control of the processor. The left and center magnetic tape 
drives are assigned to the "E" controller while the right magnetic tape drive is 
assigned to the "D" controller. Therefore, unit address O-E-O selects the 
left or center tape drive designated as unit "O" whereas O-E-l selects the left 
or center tape drive designated as unit "1". 



4-5 



Step 5. Repeat Steps 4 through 13 of the Start- Up from RAD procedure. 

When step 13 is completed, the system tape is removed and a blank tape is 
mounted on one or the other of the UTCS tape units (designated 0). If SENSE switch #3 
and SENSE switch #4 are both placed in their normal or position, the system will 
write out MOE parameters on the magnetic tape and will read in the system status at shut- 
down from the disc at start-up. 
4.1.2.3 CPU #2 Start-Up 

CPU #2 is started up after Step 13 in paragraph 4. 1. 2. 1 or Step 5 in paragraph 
4.1.2.2 is completed. A step-by-step procedure follows:. 

Step 1. Check that the initial CPU switch positions are set according to Figure 
4-1. Note that the COMPUTE toggle switch at the lower right hand 
corner of the CPU #2 Control Panel is in the IDLE position. 

Step 2. Depress CPU RESET/CLEAR pushbutton. 

• CAUTION } 

THE "SYS RESET/CLEAR" SWITCH ON 

THE CPU #2 CONTROL PANEL MUST NOT BE 

DEPRESSED WHILE CPU §1 IS RUNNING. 

Step 3. Dial in O-D-0 on UNIT ADDRESS thumbwheel. 

Step 4. Set DATA switches for bits number 23, 25, 28, 29, and 30 to the 1 

position. All other bits are set to the position. This corresponds to 
1-4-E in the hexadecimal code. 

Step 5. Set DATA toggle switch to CLEAR and then to the ENTER position and 
release switch. 

Step 6. Check that the illumination of the DATA DISPLAY lights correspond to 
1-4-E. 

Step 7. Place PSW1 toggle switch to the CLEAR position then release switch. 

Step 8. Insert PSW1 by placing the INSERT toggle switch to the PSW1 position 
then release switch. 

Step 9. Check that the illumination of the INSTRUCTION ADDRESS lights 
correspond to 1-4-E. 



4-6 



Step 10. Place the DISPLAY toggle switch in the INSTR ADDR position and release 
switch. 

Step 11. Check that the DATA DISPLAY lights correspond to the instruction 
address contents. The lights should indicate 3-2-1-0-0-1-9-8 in 
hexadecimal code. This means that bits number 2, 3, 6, 11, 23, 24, 
27, 28 are illuminated. 

Step 12. Place the COMPUTE toggle switch in the RUN position. 

4.1.3 Traffic System On-Line Procedure 

After the two CPU's have been started up, the following should be observed at 
the Traffic Control Console and Map Display. 

(a) CPU #1 and CPU #2 malfunction lights should be extinguished. 

(b) The COMPUTER IN STANDBY legend on the Map Display should be 
extinguished. 

(c) The intersection arrows on the Map Display should be operating in the A- 
Phase-Green mode. 

(d) The link arrows on the Mao Display are not immediately meaningful and will 
not be until the system is brought on-lir,;; r.d has operated for at least 15 minutes. 

(e) The computer will now honor valid requests via the Control Panel. 

Before placing the system on-line, the CRT Failure Status and the System Status 
pages should be requested. Any failures on the list which have been repaired since the 
last shutdown should be entered as such via the Control Panel. The System Status Page 
will indicate, in the Desired Mode column, the mode that each section will be brought up 
in when the UTCS system is placed on-line. This will be the mode at the last shutdown 
except for the Manual Pattern mode which will be changed to the TOD mode by the compu- 
ter, since it probably is no longer applicable. 

The system is now brought on-line by making the request via the Control Panel. 
After the on-line request has been honored by the computer, the desired mode can be 
changed on a section basis. For example, suppose section 2 was in the Traffic Responsive 
mode at the last shutdown and it was desired to change its mode to Standby, it is then 



4-7 



simply changed by making the request via the Control Panel. The request can be made 
anytime after the system is placed on-line. 

The appl^able displays during the time that the controllers are brought under 
computer control are as follows: 

CRT 



CRT #1 - Controller Status (Figure C-3, Appendix C) 

CRT #2 - System Status (Figure C-2, Appendix C) 

Map 

Controller Display - Controller Status 

Surveillance Display - Off 

The intersection arrows on the map will initially all be illuminated red. As the 
controllers come under computer control, they will change to green. The CRT Controller 
Status page will initially list all controllers in standby and they will be removed from the 
list as the controllers are brought under computer control. However, intersections which 
were operating as CIC at the last shutdown will continue to be listed. All controllers 
should be picked up under computer control within 1 1/2 to 2 minutes after going on-line. 
Should a controller not be picked up, it would signify that it was either in standby at the 
last shutdown, or that it was in a failed condition. The controller can then be picked up, 
assuming it has not failed, via a Control Panel request. 

The Actual Mode on the System Status page will initially indicate Standby mode 
for all sections. The Actual Mode will then change to correspond with the Desired Mode. 
This will normally be indicated the next time the CRT page is refreshed. 

4.1.3.1 Survey of CIC Operation 

CIC intersections will be activated in the configuration which was in effect at the 
last shutdown. At this point, transition cycles will have been completed and an assessment 
of CIC operation can be made. The applicable displays are as follows: 

CRT 

CRT #1 - Controller Status 
CRT #2 - System Status 

Map 

Controller Display - CIC Status 



4-8 



Surveillance Display - OFF 

The Controller Status page lists all intersections which are operating as CIC and 
those which have been inhibited, the System Status page lists the total number of inter- 
sections operating as CIC by section, and intersection arrows are illuminated green on 
the Map Display for all intersections operating as CIC. The status can be readily deter- 
mined. For example, if section 4 was released for CIC operation at the last shutdown, 
a zero would be in the CIC IN OP column for section 4 on the System Status page, inter- 
sections associated with section 4 will not be listed on the Controller Status page, and 
intersections associated with section 4 will have red arrows on the Map Display. 

CIC operation can be inhibited for various reasons (refer to paragraph 2.4.1). For 
reference, a list of the UTCS CIC intersections which will be inhibited for patterns 
corresponding to current District TOD dial configurations follows: 



Cont. No. 


Location 


Dial No's 


33 


CONST. /21 


3 


61 


K/CONN/17 


3 


66 


PENN/19/H 


3 


89 


K/15 


2 


91 


1/16 


1,2 


115 


K/18 


1 


121 


WISC /CALVERT 


1 



Thus, a complete assessment of the CIC operation as of the last shutdown can 
be made. The operator can now make changes on an intersection, section, or a system 
level as required. 

4.1.3.2 Survey of BPS Operation 



Intersections operating in conjunction with the BPS will be activated in the con- 
figuration at the last shutdown. BPS operation should be assessed after the desired CIC 
operating configuration has been established. This follows because BPS operation is 
possible only on intersections which have been activated for CIC operation. The applicable 
displays are as follows: 

CRT 

CRT #1 - BPS System Status (Figure C-6, Appendix C) 



4-9 



CRT #2 - Controller Status (Figure C-3, Appendix C) 

Map 

Controller Display - BPS Controller Status 

Surveillance Display - Off 

The BPS System Status page lists all operating bus intersections, intersections 
operating in the Pre-empt Mode, intersections which have been inhibited and intersections 
which have been released. It also lists the number of intersections operating as bus 
priority intersections by section. Intersection arrows are illuminated green on the Map 
Display for all intersections operating as a bus intersection. The Controller Status page 
can be used to correlate the CIC/BPS dependency. For example, suppose a zero was 
indicated for section 2 under the ACTIVE INTER, column of the BPS System Status page. 
It will be apparent from the lack of section 2 controllers in the Controller Status page 
listing that section 2 was not activated for CIC operation and the associated bus inter- 
sections are, therefore, not active. 

Thus, a complete assessment of BPS operation, in conjunction with CIC operation 
as of the last shutdown, can be made. The operator can now make changes on a bus zone, 
intersection, section or system basis. Some conditions which must be observed when 
making these changes are as follows: 

(a) If a bus detector and/or communication fails, BPS operation for the associated 
intersection is released. After repair, the intersection has to be activated before it will 

be picked up again for BPS operation. 

(b) If BPS is activated as a section or system, BPS will be inhibited unless CIC 
has been previously activated on controllers in that group. 

(c) If a controller is activated for BPS operation, the computer will automatic- 
ally activate CIC for the intersection, if it hasn't been previously activated. 

An intersection can be inhibited for BPS operation for various reasons (refer to 
paragraph 2.4.2). 

4. 2 Traffic Surveillance Procedures 

Overall traffic conditions in the UTCS instrumented area can readily be mon- 
itored using the surveillance portion of the Map Display in the Flow Data Mode. Localized 



4-10 



traffic conditions are readily analyzed using the Intersection Status and the BPS Inter- 
section Status pages (Figures C-5 and C-7 in Appendix C). 

For example, if knowledge of traffic build-up was desired and, at the same time, 
a determination as to whether the build-up was localized at one or more intersections, 
or perhaps a determination of the build-up at the outskirts as indicated by an early warning 
detector was desired; the following step by step procedure could then be utilized to dis- 
play the appropriate data on the Map Display: 

Step 1. Operate the surveillance portion of the Map Display in the Flow Data 
Mode selecting Volume as the parameter. 

Step 2. Select a threshold value for Volume which is considered normal for the 
particular time and day (assume it is 300 vehicles per lane per hour) 

Step 3. Observe the link arrows. Those links for which this volume is equalled 
or exceeded will be illuminated. 

Step 4. A relatively large percentage of links can be expected to be illuminated. 
The number of illuminated links can then be reduced to those exceeding 
a volume of 400 vehicles per hour by reentering the flow data with a 
threshold volume selection of 400. 

Step 5. Step 4 may be repeated, if desired, increasing the threshold until the 
illuminated links are reduced to a number which is suitable for more 
detailed study by the operator. 

Step 6. Select CRT Intersection Status pages for those intersections corres- 
ponding to links which have exceeded the thresholds selected. Note that 
two different intersections can be displayed simultaneously (one on CRT 
#1 and the other on CRT #2). 

Step 7. Analyze the volume, as well as other MOE data, on the status page for 
the links involved. Also review the pattern data for the intersection at 
the top of the page. 

Step 8. At this point, the operator can make a decision as to whether a split 
change and/or an offset change may improve the flow at the congested 
approaches. 



4-11 



Step 9. If a change is made, its effects can be monitored on the CRT and Map 
Displays as described above. 

The surveillance procedure described above is similar for any of the MOE 
parameters, including the BPS parameters. 

4.3 Mode Change Procedures 

The normal area control operating mode of the system is Traffic Responsive. 
This mode is selectable on either a system or a section basis. In this mode, a stored 
pattern which best matches the volume plus weighted occupancy link data obtained over 
the previous 15 minute period is automatically selected for each section. Each stored 
pattern is uniquely defined by its associated volume plus weighted occupancy parameters. 
If the measured parameters more closely match those of a stored pattern other than the 
one presently being imposed, the pattern in operation is replaced. An operating pattern 
is not changed, however, if the measured data is not significantly different from that 
stored for the pattern being imposed. 

When a mode change, from either the Standby, the TOD, or the Manual Pattern 
mode to the Traffic Responsive mode is requested, it is immediately honored by the com- 
puter; however, the pattern matching operation will not take place until the next 15-minute 
mark, provided fifteen minutes of data has been accumulated. If fifteen minutes of data 
are not available, the pattern match will occur at the next 15-minute mark. This situation 
would arise only if the mode change was put into effect less than fifteen minutes after the 
traffic system was placed on-line. 

When a mode change is made to either the TOD or the Manual Pattern mode, the 
applicable pattern is put into effect at once. The appropriate TOD pattern is continuously 
available in the core memory, while the selected manual pattern is read in from the RAD. 
A request to place a section or the system in the Standby mode is also put into effect at 
once. In this mode, control of the controllers is relinquished by the computer and they 
revert back to local dial control. 

4. 3. 1 Mode Change Requests 

A mode change from Traffic Responsive mode is not justified unless there are 
extenuating circumstances. In any case, a change should only be made after a careful 
analysis of the available information such as 15-Minute Reports, CRT Status pages, and 
the map displays. The following are circumstances for which mode changes are justified. 



4-12 



(a) Change to TOD Mode 

(1) Traffic Responsive mode is not operating properly as indicated by an 
abnormally large build-up of Stops, Delays, Queue, etc. 

(2) Abnormal amount of detector failures such as may be caused by common 
communications channels. This may make the volume plus weighted occupancy data for a 
section (or sections) inadequate for a pattern match. 

(3) A specific TOD pattern for operation such as during a holiday is desired. 

(b) Change to Manual Pattern Mode 

(1) Same as items 1 and 2 for a TOD Mode Change. 

(2) A specific Manual Pattern for operation during a special event such as a 
parade is desired. 

(3) An evaluation of the operation of a specific manual pattern is desired. 
The manual pattern may be one which is included in the library of stored patterns for 
Traffic Responsive operation. 

(c) Change to Standby Mode 

(1) The system is placed in Standby by the operator when normal operation 
is not possible or desired. Normal operation may not be possible due to abnormally 
excessive detector and/or controller failures, abnormal weather conditions, or system 
maintenance in progress. 

(2) Limited system operation (standby mode) may be desired during experi- 
mental operation, system checkout, and data gathering for pattern generation (refer to 
paragraph 2.6. 1). 

(3) A section is placed in Standby for the same reasons as the system when 
normal operation is not possible or desired for a section. 

4.4 Malfunction Detection and Management 

The detection and indication of system malfunctions are continuous system func- 
tions. This includes automatic presentation of visual and audible alarms, and record keep- 
ing for CRT and Map failure status displays and printed reports. A minimum of operator 
participation is required to properly manage these functions. 



4-13 



System reaction to a detected failure is automatic requiring no operator action. 
For example, if a controller failure is detected, it is automatically placed in Standby and 
CIC and DPS operation is inhibited. If a detector fails on a single or a multi-detector 
link, the link is automatically inhibited for operations requiring MOE parameters such as 
CIC and BPS. 

4.4. 1 Malfunction Status at Shutdown 

The malfunction status configuration at the last shutdown is stored in the computer 
and is available for display after CPU #1 and CPU #2 have been started up. The malfunc- 
tion status is updated, if required, by the operator before placing the system on-line. 
That is, malfunctions on the list which have been repaired since the last shutdown are 
removed from the list by making the appropriate repair entries on the Control Panel. 

4.4.2 Malfunction Surveillance Procedures 

A step-by-step procedure to be utilized if a Traffic System detector failure is 
indicated follows. 

Step 1. The TRAFFIC SYSTEM detector malfunction indicator (red light) comes 
on together with the audible alarm. 

Step 2. Extinguish the audible alarm by depressing the ALARM DISABLE push- 
button on the Control Panel. 

Step 3. Request the Failure Status page on the CRT via the Control Panel. 

Step 4. Obtain the detector number corresponding to the last item on the Failure 
Status page. 

Step 5. Acknowledge the detector failure via the Control Panel. 

Step 6. Activate the Alarm Disable switch by depressing again. 

Step 7. Pinpoint the location of the detector failure by requesting the Surveil- 
lance Equipment Failed mode on the Map Display. 

Step 8. Consult the Cross-Reference Directory to determine field detector num- 
ber, lane location, and associated electronics location. 

Step 9. Alert the cognizant personnel to initiate repair of failed item. 
A similar procedure can be followed for other failed items including vehicle 
detector communications, bus detectors, bus detector communication, and controllers. 



4-14 



4.4.3 Failure Repair Procedure 

A failed system component is restored to normal system operation by making the 
appropriate repair entry via the Control Panel. For example, if a detector on a multi- 
detector link which had previously failed is repaired, inactive and inhibit flags are re- 
moved and normal system operation resumes. If a component is repaired via the Control 
Panel without being physically repaired, the system will automatically (after system mal- 
function checks) indicate it as a failure. 
4.5 Data Accumulation and Reporting 

The system will provide data in various printed reports as well as recording 
information in different forms on magnetic tape. The reports and tapes are as follows: 

(a) 15- Minute Report 

(b) End of Day Report 

(c) 15 -Minute Tape 

(d) Raw History Tape 
4.5.1 15 -Minute Report 

The 15 -Minute Report includes UTCS and BPS status reports. These are as 
follows: 

(a) Changes Since Last Report 

(b) UTCS/BPS Failure Status 

(c) UTCS Controller Status 

(d) UTCS Detector Status 

(e) UTCS System Status 

(f) UTCS System Performance Report 

(g) BPS System Status 

(h) BPS 15- Minute Section Summary 
(i) BPS 15- Minute Zone Summary 

The 15-Minute report is printed on the 15-minute mark unless it is suppressed 
via the Control Panel. For normal system operation, the amount of the printout is 
minimal and should not be suppressed. For example, the UTCS Performance Report lists 
only those links which are out of tolerance with regard to volume and occupancy. When the 
appropriate history values are established, the printout will be limited to, and keyed in on, 
those links which may require special attention. Other tabulations including UTCS/BPS 



4-15 



Failure Status, UTCS Controller Status, and UTCS Detector Status will normally be brief. 
Sample 15 -Minute Reports, are presented in Appendix C. 

4.5.2 End of Day Reports 

The End of Day Report is printed out automatically when the traffic system is 
shut down via the Control Panel or when 2400 hours is reached. The report includes the 
following tabulations: 

(a) Combined daily totals or average values of UTCS MOE parameters for all 
links grouped for each section. (Refer to Table A-l in Appendix A for a definition of the 
MOE parameters in the End of Day Report. ) 

(b) Combined daily totals of BPS MOE parameters by section. 

(c) Combined daily totals of BPS MOE parameters for all bus zones grouped by 
section. 

Sample End of Day Reports, are presented in Appendix C. 

4.5.3 15-Minute Tape 

The 15-Minute Tape is processed on a 15-minute cycle. The UTCS/BPS MOE 
parameters are included for all links and bus zones on each 15-minute section of the tape. 
A single tape will store more than the total of all 15 minute tape reports required for an 
operating day. 

Each section of the tape is referenced as to date and time. The stored informa- 
tion can be printed out and used in conjunction with off-line programs. For example, the 
volume and occupancy data can be used to generate patterns. The stored information can 
also be correlated with a Raw History Tape, in conjunction with an off-line program, to 
reproduce and evaluate past system operation. 

4.5.4 Raw History Tape 

The Raw History Tape is recorded on demand from the Control Panel. A re- 
quest is made (HISTORY ON or OFF) in conjunction with a System selection in the System 
Control section of the Control Panel (Appendix B). The tape provides a real time record 
of all UTCS and BPS detector actuations, controller A-Phase Green returns, and con- 
troller Advance and Hold commands. The data is sampled from the MUX and stored in 
buffers at a 1/32 second rate and is formatted for output to the tape at a 1/2 second rate. 



4-16 



The data and time are recorded on the tape to facilitate correlating it with 
associated data on the 15-Minute Report, on the 15-Minute Tape, or other pertinent data 
recorded by the operator. A Raw History Tape provides a maximum of 1/2 hour of real 
time data. It is normally requested as part of a controlled experiment for evaluating 
system operation. 

4.6 System Shutdown 

The traffic system is shut down via a request from the Control Panel (TRAFFIC 
CONTROL/SYSTEM SHOWDOWN/ENTER). The request is in effect immediately. There 
is no "three second" delay until the READY indicator informs the operator that the request 
has been accepted. This request also "locks out" the Control Panel so that further System 
Control Panel requests will be ignored. 

The current section modes, the CIC and BPS operating status, and the failure 

histories at the time of the shutdown request are stored in the RAD. It places all sections 
in the standby mode and schedules an End of Day Report. Two minutes after completion 
of the End of Day report the traffic system program is terminated. This is indicated by 
the following message on the TTY: 

! ! PROG KING RELEASED 
! ! BCKG RESTART 

The two minutes allows sufficient time to smoothly transform all controllers to standby 
operation, before releasing the traffic system program. 

The transformation from computer control to standby can best be monitored 
by requesting Controller Status on the Map Display. This request could be made prior to 
requesting shutdown, or anytime after shutdown but before the program is released. 

A CRT status page can also be requested during this time, but display is limited to CRT 
#1 only. The CRT Controller Status page will indicate the rate that the controllers are 
being transformed to standby, that is, by observing the increasing number of controllers 
in standby with time. 

Once the traffic system program has been released, it can be started up again 
in the configuration at shutdown by following the start-up procedures in paragraphs 4. 1.2 
and 4. 1.3. 

The shutdown procedure is completed, assuming the system is to be shut down 
overnight or over a holiday, by turning off the power to equipments in Table 4-1. 



4-17/4-18 



SECTION 5 



REFERENCE TABLES AND MANUALS 



5.1 



Cross Reference Directory 



The Cross Reference Directory, located on the control console table, lists all 
controllers, vehicle detectors, bus detectors, and associated electronics by number and/ 
or street location. It provides information required by the traffic system operator to per- 
mit the selection of a particular controller or detector on the Control Panel, and to ex- 
change information with Central and Field Maintenance personnel in pinpointing and cor- 
recting system malfunctions. 

The directory consists of a file of 3" x 5" cards mounted in a Rolodex File Index. 
Cards are mounted on two drums which are independently controlled by external knobs on 
the left and right side of the file cabinet. The file is comprised of four card types which 
are illustrated in Figures 5-1 through 5-4. The file cards are for Vehicle Detector Elec- 
tronics Units, Bus Detectors, Field Cabinets (CB), and Electronics Cabinets (EB). Com- 
plete sets of each of the four types of cards are mounted on the left and right hand drums. 
However, they are ordered differently on the two drums to permit greater flexibility and 
ease in locating the required information. A breakdown of the filing configuration of the 
left and right hand drums is given in Table 5-1. 

TABLE 5-1. CROSS REFERENCE DIRECTORY FILE CONFIGURATION 



Card Type 


Left Hand Drum 


Right Hand Drum 


Vehicle Detector 


Filed in order of number 


Filed in order of com- 


Electronics Units 


on field drawing 


puter number 


Bus Detectors 


Filed in order of number 


Filed in order of com- 




on field drawing 


puter number 


Field Cabinets 


Filed in alphabetical order 


Filed in order of cabinet 


(CB) 


of street local; ■•; 


number 


Electronics Cabi- 


Filed in alphabetical order 


Filed in order of number 


nets (EB) 


of street location 


on field drawing 



5-1 



r 



Dwg. No. VEH.DET. ELECT. UNITS 


Comp. No. 


253 


V 1 
Q 1 


190 


• Det. Rcvr. - (^B^EB 57 , Pos. lb 


°2 © 


Frea. 92. 5 Kc; 






. .onnLoc Street 18 St. (N. Of G St. ) 




I nne 2 r)i r N 


e Transmitter: CB 57 . Pos. A6 




Link No. 63 


Freq. 1860 , Tel. Pr. 51 .Chan. 


13 


, p - 12 dbm 






out 


• Assoc. Controller CB 54 






• Central Rcvr; 






Cab. No. 504 Pos. G9 


See 4200 Dwq. Sht. ... 15 , 



n 



ft 



Figure 5-1. Sample Vehicle Detector Electronics Units File Card 



Dwg. No. 


BUS DETECTORS Comp. No. 


1 


144 


e Loop Loc: Street 


Wise. (S. of Hall PL) Dir. SE 


• Det. Rcvr. B 1 (B^\ 


Zone No. '^ 


• (c"b>EB 123 . Pos. 


B2 


• Transmitter (Frea.= 1020 


) 


• CB 123 , Pos. 


B3 ; Tel. Pr. 6 , Chan. 6 . P - 13 dbm 

out 


• Assoc. Controller CB 123 




• Central Rcvr. 




• Cab. No.50.9. Pos. 


(Rcvr. D6 . Filter E6 ) 




See 4200 Dwa. Sht. 35 



ft 



ft 



Figure 5-2. Sample Bus Detectors File Card 



5-2 



r 



• Street 

• Controller Type: 19-1-16 



FIELD CABINETS 
G & 18 St. 



CB 



57 



(• Denotes non-assoc. units) 



Bus Det. Rcvrs. (incl. Xmtr.) 



• Veh. Det. Elect. Units (incl. Xmtr.) 252* 253* 254 255 

256 



47 48 49 93* 



• Veh. Det. Xmtrs. only 

• Bus Det. Xmtrs. only 

• Assoc. EBs 



SI 



SI 



IS 



Field Cabinets (Cont.) 



• A0G Xmtrs. Freq. 

MSG1 1620 

MSG2 

MSG 3 

• Hold& Adv. Rcvr.: Freq. 420 

• Remote associated Veh. Detectors _ 
e Remote associated Bus Detectors 



Tel. Pr. 

51 



Cent. Revr. 

504-A5 



Cent. Tr. 504-11 

Tel. Pr. 0-22 Chan. 1 



_257_ 

50 



See 4200 Dwg. Sht. 



15 



Figure 5-3. Sample Field Cabinets (CB) File Card (Both Sides) 



5-3 



EB's EB 



12 



• eb Loc.: L & 16 TH, S. Side (CB 082) 

• Veh. Det. Elect. Units 438 439 440 441 442 

• Bus Det. Rcvrs. 102 103 104 ' 

See 4200 Dwg. Sht. 22 



fl \l 



Figure 5-4. Sample Electronics Cabinets (EB) File Card 

5-4 



A discussion of the formats of the four types of file cards is provided in the fol- 
lowing paragraphs. 

5. 1. 1 Vehicle Detector Electronics Units File Card 



The sample card, Figure 5.1, indicates that the receiver for detector number 
253/190 is located in CB 57. The detector has a Q3 function in the system which means 
that it is the third detector of a multi-detector link located approximately 365 feet up- 
stream from the stop bar (refer to paragraph 3. 2. 2. 1. The associated link number (63) is 
referenced in the computer and appears on the CRT displays and printed reports. Note 
that the controller associated with detector 253/190 is CB 54, although the detector elec- 
tronics are located in CB 57. An inspection of the UTCS Installation Drawing 4200, Sheet 
15, which is referenced on the card, will disclose that vehicles sensed by this detector 
will affect the downstream intersection, or the controller at 18th Street and Pennsylvania 
Avenue (CB 54). In the majority of cases, however, detector electronics are located in 
CB's with their associated controller. 

The location of the detector receiver and transmitter modules in the controller 
cabinet, as well as the location of its associated receiver module in Central, are specified 
on the card, by an alphanumeric code. Seeth UTCS/BPS System Maintenance Manual, 
GF- 14- 1001, (Table 5-3) for details on the interpretation of the code for determining the 
physical location of the modules. 

5.1.2 Bus Detector File Card 



The sample card, Figure 5-2, indicates that the receiver for bus detector num- 
ber 1/144 is located in CB 123 which is also its associated CB. The detector has a B2 
function in the system which means that it is the upstream detector of associated bus zone 
number 72. The detector is located about 195 feet upstream from the stop bar (refer to 
paragraph 3. 2. 2. 2. Other data and references on the Bus Detectors Card are similar to 
those given on the Vehicle Detector Electronics Units Cards. 

5.1.3 Field Cabinets (CB) File Card 

The sample card, Figure 5-3, lists and describes the equipments mounted in the 
field cabinets or CB's. Data is listed on both the front and back of the card. The con- 
troller type is denoted by a 3 -number code. The first number can be either 19 or 40, 
which indicates the number of circuits available on the cam stacks. The second number 



5-5 



can be either a 1, 2, or 3, these designations indicate that the CB is adapted for a full 
complement, partial complement or no vehicle and bus detector electronics modules res- 
pectively. The third number can be either 16 or 18, which indicates the total number of 
cam segments available on each circuit. All vehicle and bus detectors located in the CB 
are listed on the front of the card by field drawing number. (Refer to Vehicle Detector 
or Bus Detector card file to obtain the related computer numbers.) If the CB complement 
includes vehicle or bus detector transmitters only (associated receivers located remotely), 
they are so indicated. 

The back of this lists the A- Phase and minor phase Green transmitters used 
in the controller, that is, the Main Street Green (MSG) 1 (A- Phase) with MSG 2 and 3 
(minor phases), as required, together with their frequency , telephone pair used, and the 
location of their associated receivers in Central. Also on the back are the Hold and Advance 
receiver frequency and location information within the CB, plus the location of the associa- 
ted transmitter at Central. Vehicle and bus detectors which are associated with the con- 
troller (#57), but are located remotely, are also listed on the back of the card. 

5.1.4 Electronics Cabinets (EB) File Card 

The sample card, Figure 5-4, lists the vehic' » detector and bus detector elec- 
tronics by field drawing number which are housed in the electronics cabinet. (Refer to 
Vehicle Detector and D'js Detector card file to obtain the related computer numbers. ) 
Also listed is the controller associated with the EB equipment complement. 

5.2 Section Reference Tables 

5. 2. 1 Controllers by Section Table 



A tabulation of the controllers by CB number for each of the 4 sections in the 
system is presented in Table 5-2. The table may be used iri conjunction with the Cross 
Reference Directory as well as in the general operation of the traffic system to relate 
individual controllers to their associated sections. 

5. 2. 2 Links by Section Table 

Link numbers are tabulated by Section in the UTCS End of Day Report. The table 
is useful in the general operation of the traffic system. A tabulation is available in Fig- 
ure C-13 of Appendix C. 



5-6 



TABLE 5-2. CONTROLLERS BY SECTION 



Section No. 


CB Numbers 


1 
(M St. Arterial) 


1, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 


2 

(Wisconsin Ave. Arterial) 


2, 3, 4, 5, 6*, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
22, 103, 104, 105, 106, 120, 121, 
122*, 123 


3 
(Grid North of Penn. Ave. 
and including Penn. Ave.) 


21, 23, 24, 25*, 26, 27, 54, 55, 56, 59, 
60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 
70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 81, 82, 
83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 
94, 96, 97, 99, 100 


4 
(Grid South of Penn. Ave.) 


28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 
38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 
48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58*, 109, 
110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 
118, 119 



* Semi-Actuated Controllers 



5. 2. 3 Bus Zones By Section Table 



Bus zone numbers are tabulated by section in the BPS 15 -Minute Zone Summary 
and BPS End of Day Reports. The table is useful in the general operation of the traffic 
system. A tabulation is available in Figure C-12 or Figure C-15 of Appendix C. 



5.3 



Reference Manuals 



Table 5-3 lists subsystem reference manuals which may be used in conjunction 
with the UTCS/BPS System Operator's Manual in the operation of the traffic system. 



5-7 



TABLE 5-3. REFERENCE MANUALS 



Manual Title 


Publication Nun 


iber 


Company 


UTCS/BPS Traffic System 


GF- 14- 1001 




Sperry Systems 


Maintenance Manual 






Management Division 


UTCS/BPS Traffic System 


GF-16-1003 




Sperry Systems 


Software Manual 






Management 
Division 


UTCS/BPS Traffic Control 


Sperry Specification No. 


Sperry Systems 


Panel 


1-004-0-0-3200- 


-03 


Management Division 




Maintenance Procedure 


Artisan Electronics 




EPC-11088 




Corp. 


UTCS/BPS Map Display 


Sperry Specification No. 


Sperry Systems 


Graphics Unit 


1-004-0-0-4000- 


-03 


Management Division 


UTCS/BPS Map Display 


Sperry Specification No. 


Sperry Systems 


Logic Unit 


1-004-0-0-4003 


-01 


Management Division 


Instruction Book for 


D PA -6875 




TEC Inc. 


Map Display System 






- 


Operation and Maintenance 


- 




RFL Industries, Inc. 


Manual for Frequency Shift 








Communication Equipment 








for the UTCS/BPS Traffic 








System 








Manual for UTCS Controllers 


- 




The Marbelite Co. , 


and Controller Adapters 






Inc. 


XDS Sigma 5 Computer 


900959 




Xerox Data Systems 


Reference Manual 








Real-Time Batch Monitor 


901581C 




Xerox Data Systems 


(RBM) Reference Manual, 








XDS Sigma 5/7 Computers 









5-8 



Table 5-3. Reference Manuals (Continued) 



Manual Title 


Publication Number 


Company 


Operation and Maintenance 


- 


Decatur Electronics, 


Manual for UTCS/BPS Vehicle 




Inc. 


Detector Electronics, Model 






LHA 






Operation and Maintenance 


- 


EDO-Aire, Inc. 


Manual for UTCS/BPS Bus 






Detector Receiver/Trans- 






mitter 






UTCS Communications Equip- 


SSMD Doc No 


Sperry Systems Manage- 


ment Signal Level Adjustment 


4-7-5300 


ment Division 


Bus Detector Transmitter & 


- 


EDO-Aire, Inc. 


Receiver Installation & Main- 






tenance Manual 







5-9/5-10 



APPENDIX A 
GLOSSARY 

The glossary is presented in three parts: 

1. Urban Traffic Control Systems (UTCS) terms and MOE parameters 

2. Bus Priority System (BPS) terms and MOE parameters 

3. General terms 

A discussion of the UTCS and BPS MOE parameters, together with their use in 
the various displays and printouts, is also given. Table A-l provides a summary of the 
seven UTCS parameters. This summary lists the units of the parameters, where they 
are displayed, and whether they are smoothed (or filtered) quantities. 

A. 1 Urban Traffic Control System (UTCS) Terms 

A-Phase Green - The return discrete signal from a controller which is trans- 
mitted to the computer. It is initiated at the start of the first controller timing interval, 
which represents the "main" street going gr en, and is present during the time that this 
phase is green. The chosen phase direction for each intersection corresponds to the 
direction of the "main" street traffic flow and is reflected in the intersection arrows on 
the map display. 

Control Mode - The four modes are: Time of Day, Manual Pattern, Traffic 
Responsive and Standby. 

Critical Intersection Control (CIC) - Adjustment of individual intersection split 
on a cycle-to-cycle basis as a function of green demand. Queue and volume measurements 
on opposing phases are utilized to determine green demand time for each phase. 

Link - A lane between two adjacent intersections which is instrumented with one 
or more vehicle detectors. 

Manual Pattern (MAN) - Mode of operation of a section where the desired opera- 
ting pattern is selected by the operator by designating it by number through the Control 
Panel. He may select any one of a number of stored patterns for each section. 



A-l 



Offset - The portion of a cycle (expressed in seconds) that the start of the first 
controller interval is offset or displaced with respect to the master district radio pulse, 
or with respect to the computer reference (computer -generated start of A -Phase Green). 

Pattern - Consists of stored control parameters which are read in from the 
Rapid Access Disc (RAD) to facilitate the operation of intersections within a section in a 
prescribed manner. These parameters include cycle length, offset, all interval dura- 
tions for all controllers, volume and occupancy histories for all links, plus other aux- 
iliary parameters required to operate the system. The auxiliary parameters are com- 
puted with an off-line program. 

Phase - The portion of a controller cycle (expressed in seconds) during which 
traffic is permitted to flow. It may include one or more directions of flow. 

Pre-Timed Controllers - These constitute the greatest majority of controllers 
in the UTCS. These controllers provide a choice of three programs of constant signal 
intervals in recurring cycles: Dial 1 - Basic, Dial 2 - AM Peak and Dial 3 - PM Peak. 

M ulti -Detector Link - A link with two or three detectors configured for the mea- 
surement cf queue. 

S ection - A selected group of controllers which always operate in the same con- 
trol mode at a given time. 

g ?mi -Actuated ( .-.■ -rollers - Those controllers in which the B -phase has right- 
of-way only when actuated by a vehicle or pedestrian. 

Split - The ratio or apportionment of the total controller cycle to the various 
phases of traffic flow at an intersection. 

Smoothed - Noise fluctuations in the data have been minimized through the use 
of a first-order filter. 



( V. = V. 1 +K |V. -V. .,1 
V 1 l-l s|_ 1 i-l J 



) 



Standby Mode - Computer control is relinquished to local dial system control 
for a controller, controllers in a section, or all controllers in the system. Surveillance 
of all detectors continues with respect to failure status and the Speed, Volume, and Oc- 
cupancy MOE parameters. 

System - The total of all sections in the UTCS. 



A-2 



Time of Day (TOD) - Mode of operation of the system or of a section wherein 
the pattern applicable for a particular time of day is automatically selected. The TOD 
pattern is read in from the RAD and checked every 15 minutes to determine when a new 
Time of Day pattern is to be read in. Thus, the current TOD pattern is continuously 
available in the computer. 

Traffic Responsive (TRSP) - Mode of operation of the system or of a section 
where the operating pattern is based on a best match of current measured link volume 
plus weighted occupancy data for all links with a number of applicable stored histories. 
The pattern corresponding to the histories with the best match is selected. If current 
values are not significantly different from stored histories, the current operating pattern 
is not changed. 

Traffic Control - When referred to a Control Panel selection, it includes all 
system functions exclusive of BPS and CIC operation. 

Trans ;' ; : \_- A transformation period consisting of one or more cycles for 
smoothly trans.'jnnir.j from one area control pattern to another, or when a controller 
is being tran." .?•, r. standby to computer control. 

Urba -- - i. ' '.' Control System (UTCS) - Consists of the portion of the total inte- 
grated system • ;ve of BPS operation and control. It encompasses the operation of 
all vehicle detectors with associated links and intersections with associated controllers. 

Weighted Occupancy - A parameter used in the UTCS program. It is summed 
with volume and the combined values are used as the criterion for a pattern match in 
the Traffic Responsive mode. Measured occupancy values are modified by an appropri- 
ate weighting factor such that any ambiguity associated with volume vs. density is re- 
moved when a given lane exceeds its volume carrying capacity. 

Zone - The portion of a link between an upstream and a downstream detector, or 
between the furthest downstream detector and the intersection. 

A. 1.1 UTCS MOE Parameters 

The UTCS Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) parameters are presented in various 
forms in displays and reports. They are used for analyzing traffic conditions and for 



A-3 



evaluating the effects of system changes such as mode, pattern, offsets and splits. The 
seven available parameters are: 

1. Delay 

2. Occupancy 

3. Queue 

4. Speed 

5. Stops 

6. Travel Time 

7. Volume 

The basic definitions of the UTCS MOE parameters are as follows: 

Delay - Average time, beyond free flow travel time, spent by a vehicle in a link. 
Delay is presented in two ways; average delay of all vehicles in a link over a 15 minute per- 
iod in seconds per vehicle, and total delay, in hours, of all vehicles in a link over an oper- 
ating day. Values are available only for multi-detector links. 

Occupancy - Percent occupancy as indicated in UTCS displays and reports. It is 
available for all links. For a single detector link, it constitutes the percentage of time 
that vehicles indicate presence at the detector. For a multi-detector link, it is computed 
as an average by dividing the total raw link occupancy by the number of detectors. 

Queue - The sum of all vehicles, both moving and stopped, within all the zones 
of a link at the instant the traffic signal controlling the link turns green. Values are 
available for all multi-detector links. 

Speed - Average speed of all vehicles in a link in miles per hour over a cycle, 
a 15 minute period, or over an operating day. Values are available for all links. 

Stops - Total number of stops per link for a period of a cycle length, 15 minutes, 
or the operating day. Values are available only for multi-detector links. 

Travel Time - Travel Time is presented in two ways, average time spent by 
vehicles in a link over a 15 minute period in seconds per vehicle; and total time, in 
hours, spent by all vehicles in a link over an operating day. Values are available for 
all links. 



A-4 



Volume - Volume is presented in two ways, as a rate in vehicles per hour, and 
as the total number of vehicles passing through the link over the operating day. Values 
are available for all links. 

These parameters are displayed and reported in various forms. The occupancy, 
queue, speed, stops and volume parameters are smoothed on a controller cycle basis. 
The current smoothed values are listed for links associated with a particular controller 
via a CRT Intersection Status page selection. These smoothed values also control the 
link indicator lights on the map display corresponding to the parameter chosen when 
the Surveillance mode is selected for the map display. 

All seven MOE parameters are computed on a 15 minute cycle basis. These 
outputs are V ";scd on 15 minute accumulations of raw data. The totals and average values 
are listed ir. l : is 15 -Minute Report for links which differ significantly from normal stored 
values of vc s weighted occupancy for the link. The 15-minute values of the de- 

lay parame' listed en the CRT Intersection Status page and are also used to control 

the map lin r lights, if the delay parameter is chosen when the Surveillance 

mode is sel r the map display. 

Th ■.;■-■> ijnute values of all seven parameters are accumulated and, the com- 
bined total i . ■ . . .rage value as the case may be, is listed for each link in the End of Day 
Report. In : iition, the values are combined for each section and for the total system. 

A summary of the MOE parameters, indicating where and the form in which 
they are available is presented in Table A-l. Further discussions of the use and inter- 
pretation of UTCS MOE's in conjunction with displays and reports are given in Appendix 
C, Status Reports and Displays. 

A. 2 Bus Priority System (EPS) Terms 

Bus Priority System (BPS) - The portion of the UTCS which includes the inter- 
sections which are instrumented with bus detectors and associated communications, 
interface hardware and BPS computer (CPU #2). The BPS is used to grant bus exten- 
sions and to evaluate BPS performance. 

BPS System - When referring to a Control Panel selection, it includes all bus 
detectors, bus zones, and intersections instrumented with bus detectors. 



A -5 









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Bus Extension - The extension of the green time of a phase of traffic flow at an 
intersection for the purpose of permitting eligible buses through the intersection after 
the normal start of the red phase. 

Bus Zone - The portion of the lanes between two intersections included between 
an upstream and downstream bus detector. 

Eligible Bus - A Stop or Thru bus arriving in a bus zone during the green phase 
which can be helped by an extension of the green time. A Stop bus within a bus zone one 
second plus its loading time before the start of "amber" or, a Thru bus within a bus 
zone one second before the start of "amber", are considered eligible buses. 

Helped Bus - An eligible bus which has been aided by virtue of the granting of 
a bus extension. 

Preempt Extension - A mode of BPS operation in which the effectiveness criteria 
for granting extensions for eligible buses is bypassed or preempted. This mode is selec- 
table through the Control Panel on a system or a bus zone basis. 

Stop Bus - A bus which is scheduled to "top within a bus zone for the loading and 
unloading of passengers. 

Thru Bus - A bus which is not scheduled o stop to load or unload passengers 
within a bus zone. 

A. 2. 1 Bus Priority System MOE Parameters 

The BPS measure of effectiveness (MOE) parameters are: 

(a) Passenger Gain/Passenger Minutes Saved 

(b) Buses Helped 

(c) Bus Volume 

These parameters are presented in displays and reports. The basic definitions 
of the BPS MOE parameters are as follows: 

Passenger Gain/Passenger Minutes Saved - The benefit in passenger minutes 
realized by the granting of bus extensions is computed by the bus algorithm. It in- 
cludes the effects of the bus zone parameters such as Passenger Load, Extension Time 
and the red and green time of the major phases. If an extension is granted on a given 
phase, passenger minutes lost on opposing phases are taken into account. 



A-8 



Buses Helped - The number of buses aided or granted extensions are counted for 
each instrumented bus zone. This includes buses granted extensions when operating in the 
Preempt mode, or when operating normally in conjunction with the bus algorithm. 

Bus Volume - The number of buses entering a bus zone are counted. Separate 
counts are made of Stop and Thru buses. 

The three BPS MOE parameters are computed for each activated bus zone on a 
cycle-to-cycle basis. The cummulative values over 15 minute intervals are displayed on 
the CRT BPS Intersection page (Appendix C, Figure C-7) for a selected intersection. The 
15 minute totals for Passenger Gain and Buses Helped are used in conjunction with the 
Map Display to control the link arrows (refer to Table 3-1). The 15 minute totals of the 
three parameters are presented in the BPS 15 -Minute Report for all bus zones. The 
totals of these parameters, over all 15 minute operating periods, are presented in the 
BPS End of Day Report. 

A. 3 General Terms 

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Display Unit - A device using a cathode ray tube and 
: '-Delated electronics which provides an alphanumeric display of UTCS/BPS status and 
"ormance. 

Central - The facility in Washington, D. C. which houses the UTCS/BPS compu- 
ters, communications, display, and control equipment. 

Central Processor Unit (CPU) - The portion of the UTCS Computer (CPU #1) or 
BPS Computer (CPU #2) which performs the logical and arithmetical functions. CPU #1 
is dedicated to UTCS and all interface functions. CPU #2 is dedicated to BPS functions 
and UTCS/BPS raw history tape generation. 

Communications - Refers to equipment at Central which provides the interface 
between the incoming and outgoing telephone lines and the Computer Interface Unit. 

Computer Interface Unit (CIU) - The portion of the UTCS/BPS hardware which 
provides the interface between the UTCS Computer and external central equipments, and 
incoming and outgoing signals to central communications. It is also referred to as the 
I/O Multiplexer or MUX. 

CPU Control Panels - Control panels associated with CPU #1 and CPU #2. Panel 
switches are manipulated during CPU start-up and shutdown operations. 



A-9 



District - Washington, D. C. Department of Highways and Traffic. 

Discrete - A long DC signal, as opposed to a pulse. 

Hexadecimal - A four digit code used by the UTCS/BPS computers for presenting 
binary information. Four binary bits of information are conveniently expressed by a sin- 
gle hexadecimal digit. 

Presence - Detector "on state" or total detector pulse duration, in seconds, for 
a single vehicle. 

Program KING - Name given to UTCS/BPS program including the Executive 
Routine and all supporting subprograms. Reference is made to name on TTY when 
starting up and releasing the program. 

Radio Link - The radio receiver and associated electronics at Central providing 
discrete signals which are used to synchronize the UTCS generated controller cycles 
with those referenced by the district's master clock. 

Rapid Access Disc (RAD) - Auxiliary storage device used for storing control 
patterns, the UTCS/BPS program, the UTCS/BPS configuration at shutdown, and the 
Real-Time Batch Monitor (RBM). The UTCS/BPS program and configuration are read 
into core memory during CPU start-up. 

. Teletypewriter (TTY) - A UTCS/BPS peripheral equipment used for two-way 
communications between the computers and the operator. 

EB - A pole-mounted "electronics box", used to house remote vehicle detector 
electronic units and remote bus detector receivers. 

CB - A large pad-mounted field cabinet, used to house local vehicle detector 
electronics, local bus detector receivers, communication equipment, controller adapter 
and controller. 

f - The carrier frequency of a frequency shift transmitter. 



A-10 



f - The "SPACE" frequency, f minus 30 hertz, which results when an 
operating frequency shift transmitter has its SPACE Key input actuated. 

f - The "MARK" frequency, f plus 30 hertz, which results when an opera- 
ting frequency shift transmitter has its MARK Key input actuated. (Note: On a 3F trans- 
mitter, the MARK and SPACE Key inputs cannot be actuated simultaneously.) 

BE - The "BUS ERROR" signal which results when the Carrier Detect output 
of the 3F receiver indicates that no signal, within the receiver bandwidth, has been 
detected. 

BS - The "BUS STOP" signal, originated by the manual action of the bus driver, 
results in the detection of a MARK frequency signal by the 3F receiver. 

BT - The "BUS THROUGH" signal, originated by the manual action of the bus 
driver, results in the detection of a SPACE frequency signal by the 3F receiver. 

HOLD - A long duration pulse which is used to transfer field controllers from 
local dial control to Central Computer control. 

ADVANCE - A 0. 5 second pulse which will step the cam in a field controller, 
only if the HOLD signal has transferred the controller to Central Computer control. 



A-ll/A-12 



APPENDIX B 
VALID CONTROL PANEL REQUESTS 

A tabulation of the valid requests for the three Control Panel sections; System 
Control, Map Control, and Status Display, is presented in Tables B-l through B-3. An 
example of how the tables can be used to check the valid Control Panel input switching for 
activating an intersection for CIC operation can be seen by referring to Table B-l. CIC 
is selected on level 1 and CONTROLLER on level 2. The controller number is entered 
on the level 3 thumbwheel and the ON LINE/ ACTIVATE pushbutton is selected on level 
4. The ENTER pushbutton is then selected, ignoring the level 5 thumbwheel setting. 



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CRT NO. 1 
CRT NO. 1 
CRT NO. 1 
CRT NO. 1 
CRT NO. 1 
CRT NO. 1 

CRT NO. 2 
CRT NO. 2 
CRT NO. 2 
CRT NO. 2 
CRT NO. 2 

1. Thumfr 



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DISABLE FAULT RELEASE 

MANUAL RELEASE* 

FLASH* 

SUPPRESS PRINTOUT* 



K a> 



B-9/B-10 



APPENDIX C 
STAT U S REPORTS AND DISPLAYS 

Typical status reports and displays used by the UTCS/BPS Traffic System, are 
presented in this Appendix. Included are the seven CRT display pages, the 15- Minute 
Reports, and the End of Day Reports. 

C. 1 CRT Displays 

The CRT display pages, together with a discussion of CRT operation and Page 
interpretation are presented in the following paragraphs. 

C. 1. 1 Failure Status Page 

The Failure Status page (Figure C-l) includes Traffic System and BPS equip- 
ment failures. The computer continuously monitors signals from these equipments. When 
a malfunction is detected the information is stored, and the status page is updated the next 
time that the CRT is refreshed (refreshed every 25 seconds). The most recent failure 
appears on the top left side of the display. An "N" will be displayed in the ACK column 
until the operator acknowledges the failure ia a Control Panel entry. The "N" then changes 
to a "Y". If a failure which is listed on the status page is repaired, the operator can re- 
move it from the list by making the proper entry on the Control Panel. The computer will 
automatically adjust the display to fill in any void left by the repaired item. 

C. 1. 2 System Status Page 

Figure C-2 illustrates a typical display with the system having been on line for 
some time and section mode changes having been put into effect. If no additional mode 
changes are made, the pattern numbers displayed for the sections as a function of time 
would be as follows: 

Section 1 - may change on the 15- minute mark. 

Section 2 - will not change until another operator pattern selection or mode 
change is made. 

Section 3 - will change according to time of day. 

Section 4 - will change according to time of day (this Section will, however, 
remain in standby). 



C-l 



TIME: 


15:48 


























FAILURE STATUS 










TYPE 


NO 


TIME MONTH 


DAY ACK 


TYPE 


NO 


TIME MONTH 


DAY 


ACK 


BDET 


136 


1544 MAR 


02 


N 


COMM 


210 


1028 FEB 


29 


Y 


BCOM 


110 


1412 MAR 


02 


Y 


DET 


122 


912 FEB 


29 


Y 


DET 


33 


932 MAR 


01 


Y 


CONT 


66 


2201 FEB 


28 


Y 


CONT 


88 


821 MAR 


01 


Y 


BDET 


27 


1506 FEB 


27 


Y 












BCOM 


31 


903 FEB 


27 


Y 










'** ALL NORMAL 














( 2 ) TRUNCATED LIST - 


TOTAL NUMBER = 42 * 3) 







Type Code: 



BDET - Bus Detector 

BCOM - Bus Detector Communication 

COMM - Traffic System Detector Communication 

CONT - Controller 

DET - Traffic System Detector 



Acknowledge Code: Y 
N 



- Yes 

- No 



NOTES: 



1. '.'ALL NORMAL" is printed out if no equipments are found in a 

failed condition. 

2 . Printed out if number of failed items exceeds CRT page 

capacity (38 failures) 

3. Number of system failures. 



Figure C- 1. CRT Failure Status Page 



C-2 



TIME: 


12:24 
























SYSTEM STATUS 












HISTORY OFF 


















SECT. 


(1) 
TIME 


(2) 
DESIRED 
MODE 


(3) 
ACTUAL 
MODE 


(4) 
PATTERN 
NO. 


(5) 
CIC 

IN OP. 


(5) 
BPS 
IN OP. 


FAILURES* 6 * 
DET. CONT. 


1 


0905 


TRSP 


TRSP 


7 




2 


1 








2 


1003 


MAN 


MAN 


8 




5 


3 


1 





3 


0905 


TOD 


TOD 


5 




14 


12 


3 





4 


1102 


ST BY 


STBY 


1 7 > 










1 


4 



Mode Code: STBY- Standby 

TRSP - Traffic Responsive 
MAN - Manual Pattern 
TOD - Time Of Day 



History Code: 



ON - History On 
OFF - History Off 



NOTES: 1. Time of mode change request. 

2. Mode requested by operator at time shown. 

3. Current operating mode of Section. 

4. Current pattern being imposed or transitioned to. 

5. Indicates all controllers selected for CIC or BPS which are 
not inhibited. 

6. Total number of controller and detector failures in each 
Section. Detector failures include both vehicle and bus 
detectors and communications failures. 

7. When mode is Standby, number indicates current valid 
TOD pattern. 

Figure C-2. CRT System Status Page 



C-3 



The CIC In Operation and BPS In Operation totals will change, if and operator se- 
lection via the control panel is made or, if operation is inhibited due to the detection of 
related malfunctions. The failure totals are continuously updated. 

C. 1. 3 Controller Status Page 

The Controller Status page (Figure C-3) indicates the controllers, by number, 
which are in standby, or have failed, or have been selected and operating as a CIC, or 
have been selected for CIC operation but are inhibited at this particular time of day. If 
no controllers fall within these categories, "ALL NORMAL" is printed out. 

C. 1. 4 Detector Status Page 

The Detector Status page (Figure C-4) indicates the Traffic System detectors, by 
number, which have failed or arc in standby. Detector failures are of two types; detector 
electronics, which are coded "D", and detector communications, which are coded "C". 
(Refer to paragraph 2. 7. 2 for a discussion of the criteria for determining these failures.) 

C. 1. 5 Intersection Status Page 



The Intersection Status page (Figure C-5) presents the operating status of a con- 
troller or intersection, data corresponding to its current operating pattern, and its asso- 
ciated link MOE parameters. The Queue, Stops and Delay parameters are displayed for 
multi-detector links only. The display lists the associated section and links by number, 
plus link phase and direction. . All controller interval durations for the current pattern 
are listed (provision for up to 16 intervals). 

The Intersection Status page is used to determine and monitor the effects of 
operator and system changes such as split changes, offset changes, and pattern changes. 

A split change can be made by the operator by adjusting the A- Phase Green dura- 
tion or by the system by virtue of CIC operation. In either case, the operation can be 
monitored by observing changes in the interval durations. For example, if the operator 
entered a split change (A- Phase Green set for 30 seconds), the intervals indicated in 
Figure C-5 would change to: 30.0, 4.0, 42.0 and 4.0 at the start of the next controller cycle. 
The effects of the changes can also be monitored by relating the effects on the link MOE 
parameters. 



C-4 



TIME: 


16:03 
























CONTROLLER STATUS 








9C 


IOC 


US 


12C 


15C 


17C 


31C 


331 


401 


41C 


42F 


45C 


49C 


50C 


53C 


54C 


55C 


57C 


59C 


60C 


611 


65C 


661 


68C 


69C 


70C 


72C 


73C 


76C 


77 C 


82C 


84C 


85C 


87C 


881 


89C 


91C 


93C 


94C 


97C 


99C 


100C 


115C 


120C 


121C 


123C 


- 
















^ALL NORMAL 











status Codes: 



C - Operating as a CIC 
I - CIC Inhibited 
F - Failed 
S - Standby 



NOTE: 1. "ALL NORMAL" is printed out when all controllers are 
on-line and none have been selected for CIC operation. 



Figure C-3. CRT Controller Status Page 



C-5 



TIME: 


16:03 






DETECTOR STATUS 








33D 


46D 


61C 


121S 


126S 144D 182D 


221S 


256D 


304S 


356C 


401D 






ALL NORMAL^ 

(2) 
TRUNCATED LIST v ; 









Status Code: C - Detector Communication Failed 

D - Detector Failed 
S - Detector In Standby 

NOTES: 1. "ALL NORMAL" is printed out when all detectors are 
on-line. 

2. "TRUNCATED LIST" is printed out when number of en- 
tries exceeds CRT page capacity (230 detectors). 



Figure C-4. CRT Detector Status Page 



C-6 



TIME: 16:10 
















INTERSECTION STATUS 










CONTROLLER NUMBER 12 






SECTION NO. 
CIC STATUS 
BPS STATUS 
CONT STATUS 


2 
ACT 
ACT 

OL 


OFFSET (ACTUAL) 
MIN. A-PHASE GR. 
OFFSET (ENTRY) 
CYCLE LENGTH 


60.0 
28.0 
60.0 
80.0 


MASTER SYNC. 
A-PHASE GR. 
B -PHASE GR. 
C -PHASE GR. 


Y 
51.0 
29.0 
.0 


INTERVAL DURATIONS (SECONDS)* 1 ' 








1)47.0 2) 


4.0 3) 


25.0 4)4.0 








LINK LNK 
NO PHASE 


LNK 
DIR 


OCCUP VOLUME 
PCT VPH 


SPEED 
MPH 


QUEUE STOPS 
VEH NO. 


DELAY 
SEC 


36 A 
38 A 
35 B 

37 B 


N 
S 

w 

E 


4 272 
17 480 
15 168 

5 122 


20 
18 
19 
13 


6 6 
8 8 

7 8 
3 4 


26 

21 

12 

8 



CIC States Code: 



BPS Stauis Code: 



Controller Status 
Code: 



Link Phase Code: 



Link Direction 
Code: 



Master Synch Code: 



NI 


- Not Instrumented 




INH 


- TOD or Malfunction Inhibited 


ACT 


- CIC Activated 




REL 


- CIC Released 




THLD 


- CIC Operating Above Threshold 


NI 


- Not Instrumented 




ACT 


- BPS Activated 




REL 


- BPS Released 




OL 


- On Line 




STBY 


- Standby NOTE: 


1. Provision for i 


FAIL 


- Failed 


to 16 intervals 


A 


- A Phase 




B 


- B Phase 




C 


- C Phase 




D 


- D Phase 




N 


- Northbound 


S - Southbound 


NE 


- Northeast Bound 


SW - Southwest 


E 


- Eastbound 


Bound 


SE 


- Southeast Bound 


W - Westbound 


EO 


- Eastbound Exit Link 


NW - Northwest 


Y 


- Yes 


Bound 


N 


- No 


WO - Westbound 
Exit Link 



Figure C-5. CRT Intersection Status Page 
C-7 



An operator offset change can be monitored by observing the actual offset after 
a change is made. For example, if the operator entered an offset of 30 seconds the actual 
offset indicated in Figure C-5 would incrementally increase by six seconds each cycle un- 
til the last increment will make the actual offset equal to the desired operator offset. The 
computer can either increase the offset by increments of six seconds or reduce it by in- 
crements of three seconds each cycle. The quickest path is automatically chosen. For 
this example the change from a 60 second to a 30 second offset requires ten cycles in 
reducing increments whereas only nine cycles in increasing increments. 

During a pattern change, when a controller is in transition, the Link Data por- 
tion of the display is blanked out and the legend "CONTROLLER IN TRANSITION" is print- 
ed out. The new pattern data is displayed during the transition cycles. CIC and BPS op- 
eration is inhibited during the transition cycles and the display will accordingly indicate this. 
The changes in the interval durations are displayed during transition cycles. Offset 
changes, however, are not displayed until Transition has been completed. 

If a controller is placed in standby, after having previously been on-line, the 
Intersection Status page will display the pattern data which was applicable before it was 
placed in standby. Link data will continue to be displayed but multi-detector links will 
be limited to Occupancy, Volume, and Speed MOE parameters. If a controller is in stand- 
by and was not brought on-line, the pattern data will be blanked out but the link data for 
all links will be displayed but limited to Occupancy, Volume, and Speed MOE parameters. 

The Master Synch "YES" or "NO" legend indicates whether the controller cycles 
under computer control are synchronized with the District's master clock. The "NO" in- 
dication is not indicative of computer out-of-tolerance timing accuracy. The controller 
is not dropped from computer control if a "NO" is indicated. Refer to paragraph 2.2.3 for 
details on the operation of controller cycle synchronization. 

C. 1.6 BPS System Status Pa ge 

The BPS System Status page presents the BPS system status by section and by 
intersection. Figure C-6, a typical display, indicates that the BPS was last activated at 
3:17 PM and that the total system was activated, since the "TIME" is the same for all 
UTCS sections. The "ACTIVE INTER" column lists the number of intersections that 
are actually operating as bus intersections. Operating totals exclude individual inter- 
sections which have been selected by the operator for BPS operation but are inhibited. 
The "FAILURES" column totals the bus detector and communication failures for each section. 



TIME: 8:05 






















BPS SYSTEM STATUS - 


BY SECTION 






SECTION 




MODE 




TIME ON 


ACTIVE INTER. 


(3) 


FAILURES 


1 




ACT 




1517 


1 







2 




ACT 




1517 


3 




1 


3 




ACT 




1517 


15 







4 




ACT 




1517 


2 











BPS SYSTEM STATUS - BY INTERSECTION 






10B 


121 


17B 


401 


421 451 


491 54B 


55B 


57B 


59B 


601 


661 


68B 


70B 72B 


73B 76B 


77B 


82B 

(1) 
120X 


84B 


85B 


881 


91B 


93B 94P^ ' 


971 991 


115B 


121B 


123B 















Status Code: 



Mode Code: 



B - BPS Operating 

I - BPS Inhibited By CIC Operation or TOD 

P - BPS Operating in Preempt Mode 

X - BPS Released 

ACT - Activated 
REL - Released 



NOTES: 1. An "X" code signifies that the intersection has been re- 
leased by the operator via the control panel or by the 
computer as a result of an associated bus detector or 
communication malfunction. 

2. At least one of the bus zones at the intersection has been 
preempted. 

3. The total possible number of intersections in operation for 
Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 1, 5, 20 and 6 respectively. 



Figure C-6. CRT BPS System Status Page 



C-9 



Listed in the intersection portion of the display (in order of intersection number) 
are the total of the UTCS intersections which are instrumented for bus operation. Next 
to each intersection number is its current bus operation status code. Note that an "X" 
indicates that the intersection has either been released by the operator via the Control 
Panel or by the computer as a result of an associated bus detector or communication 
failure. 

C. 1. 7 BPS Intersection Page 

The BPS Intersection page presents the individual bus intersection parameters 
as well as the performance data (Figure C-7). The Load Times and Passenger Loads, by 
Zone, are intersection parameters which are used in the bus algorithms for the determin- 
ation of bus extensions. Values vary according to the time of day and are so updated. The 
values listed in the "EXT. SEC" column are the extensions, in seconds, which will be 
granted to eligible buses for the corresponding zone. The permissible extensions depend 
on the pattern in effect for the UTCS section which includes the bus intersection displayed. 
The values are accordingly updated when a pattern change is made. 

The performance data are presented as cumulative totals over 15 minute per- 
iods. The data is accumulated on a cycle-by- cycle v isis. The cycles are counted and 
the number over which the cumulative totals correspond are listed in the "NUMBER 
CYCLES" column. At the end of the 15 minute period, the cycle count as well as the per- 
formance data, are initialized to zero. The indicated volumes are the total cumulative 
number of "Stop" and "Thru" buses counted in the 15 minute period. "ELIGIBLE" and 
"Helped" buses as well as "Stop" and "Thru" buses are defined in the Glossary, Appendix 
A. The "Passenger Minutes Saved" parameter is based on the "Passenger Load" para- 
meter for the zone, the extension time, and the red and green time for the major phases 
at the intersection. 

C. 2 15- Minute Report 

The 15- Minute Report includes system status and performance reports under the 
following headings: 

(a) Changes Since Last Report 

(b) UTCS/BPS Failure Status 

(c) UTCS Controller Status 



C-10 



TIME: 


10:12 
















BPS INTERSECTION NO. 82 










ZONE 


DIREC. LOAD TIME PSG LOAD 


EXT. 


PREEMPT ■ 




NO 


SEC 






SEC. 


EXT. 




45 


N 20 


30 




10 


OFF 




46 


S 20 


30 




10 


OFF 






BPS PERFORMANCE DATA 








ZONE 


NUMBER 


EXT. VOLUME 


ELIGIBLE 


HELPED 


PSG-MIN 


NO 


CYCLES 


GNT. STOP THRU 


STOP THRU 


STOP 


THRU 


SAVED 


45 


6 


3 4 7 


2 5 


2 


4 


93 


46 


6 


2 2 2 


1 2 


1 


1 


27 

■ 



Direction Code: 



N - Northbound 
NE- Northeast Bound 
E - Eastbound 
SE - Southeast Bound 



S - Southbound 

SW - Southwest Bound 

W - Westbound 

NW - Northwest Bound 



Figure C-7. CRT BPS Intersection Status Page 



C-ll 



(d) UTCS Detector Status 

(e) UTCS System Status 

(f) UTCS System Performance Report 

(g) BPS System Status 

(h) BPS 15-Minute Section Summary 

(i) BPS 15-Minute Zone Summary 

The 15-Minute Report is printed out automatically on the 15- minute mark when 
CPU #1 is on-line. The printout can be suppressed by an operator request on the Con- 
trol Panel. Operator changes will, however, continue to be accumulated and will be 
printed out at the next unsuppressed period or when 45 actions are logged, whichever oc- 
curs first. 

C. 2. 1 Changes Since Last Report 

This report lists all of the changes that the operator has made since the last re- 
port. Figure C-8 illustrates a typical report showing a total of seven system changes. 
A complete listing of the possible type and change codes which may be included in the re- 
port follows. 

Type Codes 

BCOM - BPS Detector Communications 

BDET - BPS Detector 

BZON - BPS Zone 

CONT - Controller 

DCOM - Detector Communications 

DET - Detector 

SEC - Section 

SYS - System 



C-12 



Change Codes 

BPOF - BPS Off 

BPON - BPS On 

CCOF - CIC Off 

CCON - CIC On 

EX IN - Extension 

FACK - Failure Acknowledge 

HOFF - History Record Off 

HON - History Record On 

MAN - Manual (Pattern Number also recorded) 

OFST - Offset 

ONLN - On Line 

PROF - BPS Preempt Off 

PRON - BPS Preempt On 

RE PR - Repair 

SPLT - Split 

ST BY - Standby 

TOD - Time of Day 

TRSP - Traffic Responsive 

Note that a zero is indicated in the "NUMBER" column corresponding to a system change 
since a number here is not applicable. 

C. 2. 2 UTCS/BPS Failure S tatus 

This report (Figure C-9) lists all of the UTCS/BPS failures in chronological or- 
der with the latest item on the bottom of the list. Provision is made for a maximum list- 
ing of 200 failures. 



C-13 



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The Type and Acknowledge codes are the same as those given for the CRT Failure 
Status Page (Figure C-l). 

C. 2. 3 UTCS Controller Status 



This report (Figure C-9) is essentially a reproduction of the CRT Controller 
Status Page (Figure C-3). Note that the table is a blank if all controllers are on-line and 
none have been selected for CIC operation. 

C. 2. 4 UTCS Detector Status 



This report (Figure C-9) is essentially a reproduction of the CRT Detector Status 
Page (Figure C-4). Note that the table is a blank if all detectors are on-line. 

C. 2. 5 UTCS System Status 

This report (Figure C-9) is essentially a reproduction of the CRT System Status 
Page (Figure C-2). The printout presents the system status at the end of the last 15 min- 
ute period. Note in the sample report that sections 1, 2, and 3 were selected for TOD 
operation and section 4 for Standby operation during the last 15 minutes. 

C. 2. 6 UTCS System Performance Report 

The UTCS System Performance Report (Figure C-10) prints out the MOE para- 
meters for those links which differ significantly from history values of volume and occu- 
pancy. In normal operation, after valid history values are obtained and stored on the 
RAD, the report will list only those links which exhibit volumes and occupancies which 
differ from the history values by more than a predetermined tolerance. Thus, out-of- 
tolerance links will be pinpointed for further observation and surveillance. The sample 
report (Figure C-10) lists all UTCS links since the volume and occupancy history values 
were zero and a tolerance of zero was being used. Normally only the out-of-tolerance 
links would be included in the printout. Note that the Queue, Stops, and Delay parameters 
are printed out only for multi-detector links. An "H" following the link number indicates 
that a detector on the link has failed and listed parameters are hir: :>ry values. An aster- 
isk (*) following the link number indicates that the controller ass;> ;ated with the link is 
in standby. 

C.2.7 BPS System Status 

This report (Figure C-ll) is essentially a reproduction of the CRT BPS System 
Status display (Figure C-6) except that the number of intersections in each section which 
are operating as active BPS intersections, operating in a pre-empt mode, or inhibited 
is indicated. 

C-16 





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C-22 



C. 2. 8 BPS 15- Minute Section Summary 

This report (Figure C-ll) presents a 15-Minute summary of Eligible and Helped 
buses (Stop and Thru), the number of extensions granted, and the passenger- minutes 
saved for each section. 

C. 2. 9 BPS 15-Minute Zone Summary 

The BPS 15-Minute Zone Summary (Figure C-12) presents the 15- minute per- 
formance summaries for all BPS zones. Zones are referenced to its associated inter- 
section and section. The direction of each zone is also given for ready reference. The 
15-minute mode of operation indicates the operational status of the zone just before the 
15-minute mark. Operational status codes include Release (REL), Inhibit (INK), Activate 
(ACT), Preempt (PRE), and Failed (FAIL). 

Figure C-12 indicates that none of the BPS zones have been activated for BPS 
operation. This is indicated by the REL in 15-Minute Mode of Operation column, and by 
the zeros for the various parameters. In actual operation, the values for the various 
parameters in the 15-Minute Zone Summary (Figure C-12) would be the actual breakdown 
of the totals for each section given in the 15- Minute Section Summary (Figure C-ll). 

C. 3 End of Day Report 

The End of Day Report provides a summary of both the UTCS and BPS opera- 
tion and performance. The report is printed out automatically whenever the traffic 
system is shut down via the control panel. 

C. 3. 1 UTCS End of Day Report 



The UTCS End of Day Report (Figure C-13) presents the sum total or average 
value of the MOE parameters for each link. The links are grouped according to their 
associated sections. The parameters are also totaled for each section and finally for 
the entire system. Note that an "NI" (not instrumented) is listed in the Delay, Stops, 
and Queue columns for those links which are not multi-detector links. 

The significance of the MOE parameters presented in the UTCS End of Day Re- 
port are summarized as follows: 

Delay - The total delay in hours experienced by all vehicles on a link, a section, 
or in the entire system over the period during a day that the traffic system is on-line. 



C-23 



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Occupancy - The average percent occupancy of all the 15- minute accumulations 
of raw occupancy for a link, a section, or the entire system over the period during a day 
that the traffic system is on-line. 

Queue - The average of the queues in vehicles per cycle for all cycles for a link, 
a section or the entire system over the period during a day that the traffic system is on- 
line. 

Speed - The average speed in miles per hour of all the 15-minute accumulations 
of raw speed for a link, a section, or the entire system over the period during a day that 
the traffic system is on-line. 

Stops - the total number of stopped vehicles for a link, a section, or the system 
over the period during a day that the traffic system is on-line. 

Travel Time - The total time in hours that is spent by all vehicles in a link, in 
the links which comprise a section, or in all links of the total system over the period 
during a day that the traffic system is on-line. 

Volume - The total number of vehicles passing through a link, the links which 
comprise a section, or in all of the links of the total system over the period during a day 
that the traffic system is on-line. 

C. 3. 2 BPS End o f Day Section Summary 

The BPS End of Day Section Summary (Figure C-14) presents the sum total of 
BPS performance parameters for all the 15-minute periods that the traffic system is on- 
line during the operating day. The report heading format is identical to that used in the 
BPS 15-Minute Section Summary (Figure C-ll). 

C. 3.3 BPS End of Day Zone Summary 

The BPS End of Day Zone Summary (Figure C-15) presents the sum total of BPS 
performance parameters for all the 15-minute periods that the traffic system is on-line 
during the operating day. The report headings for these parameters are identical to those 
used in the BPS 15-Minute Zone Summary (Figure C-12). However, the Intersection and 
Direction headings are not used in the End of Day Summary. In their place is a breakdown 
of the number of 15-minute periods during which the zone operated in a failed, released, 
activated, preempted, or inhibited condition. 



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APPENDIX D 
COMMON UTCS/BPS COMPUTER ERROR MESSAGES 

The common error messages printed out by the UTCS/BPS computer on the 
UTCS TTY, together with an explanation of their significance, follows: 

(a) XXXXX MANUAL 

Indicates that the specified device is in a Manual Mode. 
Recovery is automatic when device is put in the Automatic 
Mode. 

Usually caused by not depressing the start pushbutton on the 
unit. May also be caused by an empty card hopper on the card 
devices. 



(b) XXXXX ERROR 

Indicates that there has been an I/O error on the specified 
device. May be caused by a transmission error on the device. 



1 



Other possible causes are: 

(1) Paper low condition on line printer 

(2) Full stacker on card devices 

(3) Card jam on card devices 

Recovery can be made by correcting the error condition and 
keying in: 

XXXXX R 

(c) XXXXX UNRECOG 

Indicates a "POWER OFF" condition on the unit. 
Recovery is the same as (b). 

(d) XXXXX TIMED OUT 

Indicates that the specified unit has failed to respond 
to an I/O command within a pre -assigned time limit. 
Most commonly associated with tape units. Recovery is 
the same as (b). 



D-l 



(e) XXXXX WRT PROT 



Indicates that a write operation has been specified to a 
write protected unit. Can only occur on tape units and 
RAD files. For tape units - put ring in tape and recover 
as in (b), For RAD files - an SYC KEY IK is required to 
write on any permanent RAD file (tor example, SP, BP, 
FP areas). Monitor v/ill abort any job attempt to write 
on a protected RAD area without the required KEY IN in 
effect. 



(f) KEY ERR 



Monitor did not recognize unsolicited KEY IN. Recover by 
retyping the command. Does not require an additional 
INTERRUPT from console. 



D-2 



ft U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1973 O - 726-381 




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